Cases reported "leukostasis"

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1/10. leukostasis followed by hemorrhage complicating the initiation of chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and hyperleukocytosis: a clinicopathologic report of four cases.

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary and cerebral leukostasis, or parenchymal hemorrhage in these organs, are well-known early complications developing in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), particularly when myelomonocytic features, hyperleukocytosis, and/or a coagulation disorder are initially present. Commonly, these complications arise during increasing leukocyte counts (WBCs). methods: The authors describe four patients with AML and hyperleukocytosis who developed leukostasis followed by parenchymal hemorrhage. RESULTS: Bleeding in all patients occurred while their WBCs were decreasing following cytosine-arabinoside chemotherapy, and in the absence of disseminated intravascular coagulation or severe thrombocytopenia. Radiologic and histopathologic findings underscoring possible mechanisms are presented in the article. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of cell adhesion associated with chemotherapy-induced blast lysis or cellular differentiation are possible factors contributing to this particular sequence (cytosine arabinoside-based chemotherapy, leukostasis, and subsequent hemorrhage). Prophylactic measures for managing this early complication of AML treatment include leukapheresis to reduce the WBC prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. ( info)

2/10. Pulmonary leukostasis mimicking pulmonary embolism.

    We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain, and mismatched perfusion defects on a ventilation-perfusion scan suspicious for pulmonary embolism. However, subsequent data revealed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia with hyperleukocytosis and associated pulmonary leukostasis. Unfortunately, the patient died despite urgent leukopheresis. autopsy examination revealed extensive infiltration of leukemic cells in all major organs with no evidence of pulmonary embolism. This case highlights the clinical, radiographic and histologic features of pulmonary leukostasis, and reminds the clinician that not all ventilation-perfusion mismatching is due to thromboembolic disease. ( info)

3/10. Pulmonary leukostasis: role of perfusion lung scan in diagnosis and follow up.

    A patient with hyperleukocytic myelomonocytic leukemia who presented to the emergency room with sudden pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea is reported. Clinical manifestations included dyspnea tachypnea and hyperventilation. blood gas analysis revealed hypoxemia, hypocarbia, and respiratory alkalosis. Chest X ray was normal, and perfusion lung scan revealed a diffuse vascular occlusive pattern compatible with pulmonary leukostasis. The patient underwent immediate leukapheresis with subsequent mitigation of symptoms. A second perfusion lung scan showed evidence of significant improvement. To our knowledge this is the first published case of hyperleukocytosis presenting with pulmonary leukostasis that was successfully diagnosed and followed by serial perfusion lung scan. ( info)

4/10. leukapheresis in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with leukostasis syndrome: elevated serum lactate levels as an early sign of microcirculation failure.

    We present the course of three patients suffering from chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), who presented with a markedly increase of their WBC (>200 G/l). All patients were started on chemotherapy consisting of ARA-C given as continuous infusion. Due to acute respiratory insufficiency, all patients were treated in the ICCU with ventilation support. respiratory insufficiency was most likely due to pulmonary leukostasis since pulmonary infection or edema were excluded by X-ray in all patients. Therapeutic leukapheresis was therefore initiated and resulted in a dramatic improvement in one patient. Two patients died due to multiorganic failure despite effective leukocyte depletion (>40%) and maximum supportive care. At the onset of symptoms, two patients had markedly elevated serum lactate levels most likely due to microcirculatory failure. Both patients died because of deteriorating sequelae of pulmonary leukostasis, however, the patient with marginally elevated serum lactate levels survived. leukapheresis is an established therapeutic approach in patients with hyperleukocytosis and leukostasis, which improves the prognosis of high-risk patients. In our opinion, patients presenting with asymptomatic hyperleukocytosis may benefit from early leukapheresis, particularly when increasing serum lactate levels indicate the early onset of microcirculatory failure. ( info)

5/10. Aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads as first symptom of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a disease of the elderly; in rare cases it occurs in childhood or adolescence. One complication at primary diagnosis is leukostasis, which usually causes respiratory, retinal, or central nervous symptoms. In this report we describe the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads, which was successfully treated by bore holes in the femoral heads. This is a very rare complication of severe leukostasis, leading to the diagnosis of CML in this case. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an adult patient showing aseptic necrosis of femoral heads caused by leukostasis. ( info)

6/10. Case report: mantle cell lymphoma, prolymphocytoid variant, with leukostasis syndrome.

    A 76-year-old man presented with leukostasis syndrome, including oculodynia, blurred vision, and visual field defects, due to mantle cell lymphoma, prolymphocytoid variant, with marked leukocytosis, 1227 x 10(9)/l. He had splenomegaly but no lymphadenopathy or hepatomegaly. The tumor cells were CD5 , CD19 , CD20 , FMC-7 , and kappa light chain restricted. immunohistochemistry showed expression of p53 and of cyclin d1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrated t(11;14) with translocation between cyclin d1 and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. The patient received leukapheresis and aggressive chemotherapy, but the leukocyte count remained above 100 x 10(9)/l. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated with lymphomatous infiltration of his lungs and soft tissues, and he expired 6 months after diagnosis. While it is known that mantle cell lymphoma may have a leukemic phase, the degree of leukocytosis in this case exceeds that previously reported in the literature and resulted in a clinical syndrome of leukostasis. ( info)

7/10. Management of life-threatening pulmonary leukostasis with single agent imatinib mesylate during CML myeloid blast crisis.

    Pulmonary leukostasis is a rare but serious and often fatal complication of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis and acute myeloid leukemia. Treatment options are limited for these patients. Imatinib mesylate (STI-571, Gleevec, Novartis) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the BCR-abl tyrosine kinase, the molecular abnormality that causes CML. The case of a 74-year-old man with a history of CML who presented in myeloid blast crisis with pulmonary leukostasis characterized by increasing dyspnea, hypoxemia, fever, and impending respiratory failure is reported. The patient was treated with single agent imatinib mesylate (IM) with rapid decrease in his white blood cell count (WBC) and marked improvement in his respiratory status. No electrolyte abnormalities consistent with tumor lysis syndrome were observed. IM may be an effective single agent therapy for pulmonary leukostasis in patients with CML blast crisis who are at the risk for tumor lysis. ( info)

8/10. Hyperleukocytosis associated pulmonary leukostasis in acute leukaemia.

    leukostasis is a fatal complication in granulocytic leukaemia. brain and lung are most commonly involved organs in leukostasis. In the lung, the clinical presentation simulates infections and haemorrhagic complications of acute leukaemia. Being a medical emergency, early recognition of leukostasis and initiation of therapy prevents mortality. ( info)

9/10. Acute cardiorespiratory failure as presenting symptom of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    A patient with acute cardiorespiratory failure caused by hyperleukocytosis due to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is described. Although acute pulmonary failure due to leukostasis is a known and often postmortem finding in patients with acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML) or chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML) in blastic crises, it is rare in CLL. ( info)

10/10. Sudden death in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    The authors describe a 51-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with respiratory distress and then died suddenly while in hospital. autopsy revealed pulmonary leukostasis and a large intracardiac mass containing mostly mature lymphocytes and fibrin. Although leukostasis and lymphocyte thrombi have been described (albeit rarely) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, an intracardiac "clot" has not. It seems plausible that this intracardiac mass caused the patient's death. ( info)
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