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1/28. Oral-facial-digital syndrome with hypothalamic hamartoma, postaxial ray hypoplasia of the limbs, and vagino-cystic communication: a new variant?

    We report on a 20-month-old girl with hypothalamic hamartoma, left cerebral atrophy, tongue nodules, oral frenula, micrognathia, hypoplasia of the left ulna, the fibulae, and right tibia, polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, vagino-cystic drainage with hydrometrocolpos, megaloureters, and hydronephrosis, agenesis of urethra, complex partial seizures, and central precocious puberty. The differential diagnosis is discussed. We conclude that the malformation complex in this girl is an oral-facial-digital syndrome, but is different from any of the 11 known subtypes.
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2/28. Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis.

    We report on 3 male and 2 female infants with acromelic frontonasal dysostosis. All 5 had a frontonasal malformation of the face and nasal clefting associated with striking symmetrical preaxial polysyndactyly of the feet and variable tibial hypoplasia. In contrast, the upper limbs were normal. This rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia may represent a distinct autosomal-recessive disorder. We suggest that the molecular basis of this condition may be a perturbation of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signalling pathway, which plays an important part in the development of the midline central nervous system/craniofacial region and the limbs.
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3/28. Tibial and fibular developmental fields defects.

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. To explain the diversity and complexity of these abnormalities, authors introduced the concept of tibial and fibular developmental fields. Defects in these fields are responsible for different malformations, which have been described, to our knowledge, in only one report in the radiology literature. We present a case of a newborn with femoral bifurcation, absent fibulae and talar bones, ankle and foot malformations, and associated atrial septal defect. Our case is an example of defects in both fibular and tibial developmental fields.
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4/28. Post-axial limb defects with maternal sodium valproate exposure.

    A male child is described with bilateral talipes equinovarus, absent fibulae with bowing and shortening of the tibiae and facial dysmorphic features. His mother was on a daily dose of 2000 mg sodium valproate for convulsions. This case raises the possibility that postaxial limb defects might be caused by intrauterine valproate exposure.
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5/28. Are triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS) and tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS) identical? A father with TPTPS and his daughter with THPTTS in a Thai family.

    We report on a Thai man who had triphalangeal thumb-polysyndactyly syndrome (TPTPS, MIM *190605) and his daughter who had tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome (THPTTS, MIM *188770). The father had polysyndactyly of triphalangeal thumbs, syndactyly of fingers, duplicated distal phalanx of the left great toe, brachymesophalangy of toes, and the absence of middle phalanges of some toes. He was diagnosed as having TPTPS. His daughter was more severely affected, having complete syndactyly of five-fingered hands in rosebud fashion (Haas-type syndactyly), hypoplastic tibiae, absent patellae, thick and displaced fibulae, preaxial polysyndactyly of triphalangeal toes, and cutaneous syndactyly of some toes, the manifestations being consistent with THPTTS. Having two different syndromes in the same family suggests that they are actually the same disorder. A literature survey showed that there have been several families where THPTTS occurred with TPTPS or Haas-type syndactyly (and/or preaxial polydactyly type 2, PPD2). In addition, all loci for TPTPS, THPTTS, and PPD2 (and/or PPD3) have been assigned to chromosome band 7q36. These findings support our conclusion that TPTPS, PPD2 (and/or PPD3), and Haas-type syndactyly are a single genetic en-tity (THPTTS). We propose to call the condition "tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumbs syndrome." copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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6/28. Morphologic and radiographic characterization of fibular dimelia.

    Fibular dimelia accompanied by complete tibial agenesis is a rare developmental anomaly that has been reported in the anatomic and clinical literature as both a dimelia and a diplopodia. Previous reports have offered variable descriptions of structural aberration and possible modes of altered embryologic development. We present a clinical and radiographic history of the progressive development of this anomaly, and a detailed postsurgical dissection and histopathologic examination. The specific mirroring of the separate components in this case has not been previously reported, and suggests that a reestablishment of limb polarity may have occurred during embryogenesis. Our detailed morphologic investigation strongly suggests a central role for the mesenchymal precursor from which chondro-osseous morphology subsequently emerges, and the relevance to establishing muscular attachments.
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7/28. Patient with the mesomelic dysplasia, Nievergelt syndrome, and cerebellovermian agenesis and cataracts.

    We describe a 33-day-old boy who had short and thick tibiae, symmetrical oligosyndactyly of the hands, and distinctive face. The patient was considered as a case of Nievergelt syndrome, a rare form of mesomelic dysplasia. Besides the characteristic mesomelic limb anomalies of Nievergelt syndrome, this patient exhibited two additional features: agenesis of the cerebellar vermis and cataracts, both of which have not been previously reported.
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8/28. Lethal faciocardiomelic dysplasia- a new autosomal recessive disorder.

    Three male sibs from consanguienous parents were found to have a strikingly similar pattern of multiple congenital anomalies. The main features were polyhydramnios; low birthweight; dwarfism; epicanthal folds; abnormal ears; microretrognathia; microstomia; microglossia; glossoptosis; webbed neck; severe cardiac defects; radial and ulnar hypoplasia; radial deviation of the hands; brachymetacarpalia; thumb hypoplasia; clinodactyly and hypoplasia of the 5th finger; simian creases; fibular and tibial hypoplasia; talipes varus with hypoplastic heels; wide gap between 1st and 2nd toes; and delayed bone age. Neonatal death occurred in the 3 babies by severe cardiac failure. Differential diagnosis permits one to conclude that this is a new type of faciocardiomelic dysplasia with a probable autosomal recessive inheritance.
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9/28. Camptomelic dwarfism. Report of a case and review of the salient features.

    A typical case of camptomelic dwarfism exhibits the characteristic clinical features of: rhizomelic dwarfism, anterior bowing of the tibia with cutaneous dimpling, talipes equinovarus, peculiar facies with micrognathia and characteristically death in the first 6 weeks of life.
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10/28. prenatal diagnosis of femur-fibula-ulna complex by ultrasound examination at 20 weeks of gestation.

    We describe the prenatal sonographic diagnosis of femur-fibula-ulna complex at 20 weeks of gestation. On targeted ultrasound examination, a severe malformation of the lower limbs was observed. Further sonographic exploration demonstrated bilateral asymmetrical femoral hypoplasia, hypoplasia of both tibiae, bilateral aplasia of the fibulae and oligosyndactyly of the right hand with absence of the 4th and 5th rays. The prenatal sonographic features and differential diagnosis are discussed.
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