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1/18. trisomy iop. A report of two cases due to a familial translocation rcp (10;21) (pII;pII).

    trisomy for the short arm of chromosome number 10 was diagnosed (by a G-banding method) in two sisters with multiple congenital defects. Their mother and two other sisters showed a balanced translocation 46,XX rcp(10;21)(p11;p11), so the affected girls were the result of a maternal adjacent-1 meiotic segregation with a karyotype 46,XX, der(21), rcp(10;21)(p11;p11)mat. The concordant features in the abnormal patients constitute the following syndrome: severe psychomotor retardation, congenital microsomatia, mild hydrocephalus with cranium-face disproportion, low set ears with hypoplastic helix, ocular colobomata, pulmonary stenosis,flexion deformity of wrists and elbows, bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly and simian creases, hypoplastic dermal ridges, bilateral talipes, persistent icterus and delayed bone age. The phenotypical and cytogenetic findings permit the individualization of the 10p trisomy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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2/18. Limb deficiencies in infants with trisomy 13.

    In 1994, we published a case with trisomy 13 who presented with ectrodactyly [Urioste et al., 1994: Am J Med Genet 53:390-392]. Recently, Kuschel and Gillessen-Kaesbach [2000: Am J Med Genet 90:87-88] presented an infant with trisomy 13 who also had oligodactyly, and they considered their case as the second published with oligodactyly. Here, we present three cases with any type of limb deficiencies who, together with the one that was published previously [Urioste et al., 1994], correspond to the total of 75 cases with trisomy 13 identified in the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC). This gives us a minimum frequency of 5.33% (CI:1.45-13.65) for trisomy 13 cases having limb deficiencies whereas these defects have a frequency of 5.51 per 10,000 births in our population. Consequently, we think that limb deficiencies could be considered as one of the defects that constitute the spectrum of anomalies observed in infants with trisomy 13.
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ranking = 9
keywords = trisomy
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3/18. Craniofacial anomalies, deafness, brachydactyly, short stature, and moderate mental retardation due to a cryptic 6p;11q translocation.

    Monozygotic twin brothers are described who share clinical features which include: moderate mental retardation, short stature, macrocephaly, frontal bossing, ptosis, low-set ears, brachydactyly, 5th fingers clinodactyly, single palmar creases, cryptorchidism, and prelingual sensorineural deafness. One of the twins presented with mild cardiac dilatation and died at age 3(1/2) from cardiac arrest during an episode of acute respiratory infection. While chromosome analyses performed for both twins on peripheral blood showed apparently normal karyotypes, screening for all telomeric regions on the surviving propositus revealed a combination of partial 6p trisomy and partial 11q monosomy. A balanced reciprocal translocation was found in the father. The phenotype of the twins is most likely related to this cryptic chromosomal rearrangement. The fact that the phenotype in this family partially overlaps with some previously reported phenotypes is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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4/18. Familial partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 10 (q24-26).

    Two fourth cousins with a strikingly similar pattern of malformation and who have an unbalanced translocation (46, XY, -17, t (17p; 10q) are described. From an analysis of the phenotypes of these patients and others reported with 10q trisomy, we propose that the trisomy 10q 24-26 syndrome includes: growth and mental retardation, a characteristic facies (microcephaly, flat face with spacious forehead, small nose, depressed nasal bridge, arched wide-spaced eyebrows, blepharophimosis, microphthalmia, low-set ears, bow-shaped mouth with prominent upper lip, micrognathia), palate anomalies (high-arched cleft or agenesis), congenital heart disease, and anomalies of the hands and feet. Anomalies common to the cousins, but not described in other patients with trisomy 10q, are believed to be expressions of a partial monosomy of 17p.
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ranking = 10.478433749876
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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5/18. Further delineation of the clinical picture of trisomy for the distal segment of chromosome 13: report of three cases.

    Three cases of partial trisomy for the distal segment of chromosome 13 are reported. Common clinical features included normal birth weight, postnatal asphyxia, convulsions, severe psychomotor retardation, normal growth, and a distinct pattern of dysmorphias consisting of trigonocephalic head with prominent metopic suture, long and markedly curved eyelashes, a stubby nose, increased distance between nose and upper lip, high-arched palate, misshapen ears with virtually absent lobules and prominent anthelices which are curved in a sharp angle, and hemangiomata. Features present in 2 cases were microcephaly, long and narrow fingers with convex nails, and hexadactyly. Two cousins were unbalanced offspring of a large family of carriers of a 9/13 translocation, whereas the third case exhibited a 13p chromosome which was formed de novo. The clinical features in the 3 patients are typical of the syndrome due to partial trisomy for the distal segment of chromosome 13 which shows selected and mitigated signs of full trisomy 13.
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ranking = 8.7392168749379
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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6/18. Pseudo-trisomy 13 syndrome: report of one case.

    A new syndrome associated with holoprosencephaly, midline facial defects and postaxial polydactyly but normal chromosomes was described. The term "pseudo-trisomy 13 syndrome" was used because of the resemblance to trisomy 13. Only a few cases have appeared in the literature, and this is the first chinese case.
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ranking = 6
keywords = trisomy
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7/18. 9q34.3 deletion syndrome in three unrelated children.

    We described three unrelated children with cryptic 9q34.3 rearrangements and similar clinical manifestations: two with 9q34.3 terminal deletions and the other with an unbalanced translocation involving 9q34.3-qter monosomy and 6p25-pter trisomy. Common features among the three we studied and the other six patients with 9q34.3 deletions in the literature include microcephaly, mental retardation (MR), hypotonic, and epileptic seizures. Their facial characteristics included flat face, arched eyebrows, synophrys, hypertelorism, short nose, anteverted nostrils, carp mouth, protruding tongue, micrognathia, and pointed chin. Other frequent abnormalities were cardiac abnormalities, cryptorchidism or hypospadias, and abnormal toes. These findings are characteristic enough to be a clinically recognizable syndrome.
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ranking = 1
keywords = trisomy
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8/18. Mosaic trisomy 22 in a boy with a terminal transverse limb reduction defect.

    A terminal transverse limb reduction defect is a relatively common congenital malformation that most often occurs unilaterally and in isolation. A mildly mentally disabled boy is described with an absent left hand, a congenital cardiac defect, short stature, facial dysmorphism and skin pigmentary anomalies. karyotyping of fibroblasts revealed mosaic trisomy 22. Most of the clinical features of our patient are consistent with the phenotype of mosaic trisomy 22, however, a terminal transverse reduction defect has until now never been reported in association with this chromosomal aberration.
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ranking = 6
keywords = trisomy
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9/18. Prenatal sonography in trisomy 9.

    Two cases of trisomy 9 are presented with the description of the prenatal sonographic findings prompting prenatal cytogenetics evaluation. The characteristic sonographic abnormalities included structural heart defects; limb, renal, and facial anomalies; and intrauterine growth retardation. The clinical course and cytogenetic and autopsy finding are described.
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ranking = 5
keywords = trisomy
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10/18. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a de novo supernumerary ring chromosome 7 resulting in partial trisomy, tetrasomy, and hexasomy in a child with dysmorphic signs, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay.

    We report on a girl with mosaicism (65%) of a de novo supernumerary ring chromosome 7. The main clinical features were delayed psychomotor development, congenital heart defect, facial dysmorphisms, and long hands, fingers, feet and toes. Molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed that the ring chromosome was duplicated in 20% of the analyzed metaphases with marker chromosome and quadruplicated in 5% thereof. uniparental disomy (UPD) of the two normal sister chromosomes 7 was excluded. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a partial tetrasomy to hexasomy due to a ring chromosome 7. Additionally, the ring evolution could be reconstructed according to the FISH-results.
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ranking = 7.4784337498758
keywords = trisomy, partial trisomy
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