Cases reported "Lipodystrophy"

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1/40. Hepatosplenomegalic lipidosis: what unless Gaucher? adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) with anemia, mesenteric lipodystrophy, increased plasma chitotriosidase activity and a homozygous lysosomal acid lipase -1 exon 8 splice junction mutation.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted for hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. bone marrow cytology showed "sea-blue histiocytes", vacuolated macrophages and plasma cells. As primary liver disease, malignancy or hematologic disorders were excluded, and plasma chitotriosidase activity was increased 27-fold over control, the presence of a lysosomal storage disease was suspected. Biochemical analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed normal glucocerebrosidase and sphingomyelinase activity, but lipid analysis showed a more than 15-fold accumulation of cholesterol esters within the cells. The activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in fibroblast homogenates was decreased to 12% of control subjects. Mutational analysis of the patient's blood showed the homozygous G-->A mutation at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site (E8SJM-allele) known for adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD); the polymorphic background was that of the complex haplotype -6Thr, 2Gly, 894 G-->A. Based on clinical, laboratory, cytological and and biochemical findings, CESD can clearly be separated from other more frequent inherited lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. atypical forms of gaucher disease.
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2/40. Membranous lipodystrophy presenting with palilalia: a PET study of cerebral glucose metabolism.

    A case of membranous lipodystrophy (Nasu-Hakola disease; NHD) associated with palilalia was reported. A 38-year-old Japanese woman developed walking difficulty in her twenties. At age 35 she manifested neuropsychiatric symptoms characterized by euphoria, palilalia and dementia. A bone marrow biopsy showed periodic acid Schiff-positive membranous cystic lesions in the adipose tissue. Positron emission tomography with (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose disclosed that regional cerebral glucose metabolism was decreased in the bilateral frontal white matter with mild hypometabolism in the thalamus and basal ganglia; all predominantly on the right. Taken together with the previous postmortem findings, it is postulated that frontal lobe hypofunction, predominantly in the right hemisphere, produced the unique neuropsychiatric symptoms in this patient.
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3/40. Two Japanese cases of localized involutional lipoatrophy.

    We present two Japanese cases of involutional lipoatrophy. The first case is that of a 30-year-old woman, who first appeared at our hospital complaining of a localized, well-demarcated depression, approximately 3 x 4 cm in size, normal to slightly erythematous in coloration, on the lateral side of the left upper arm (Fig. 1a). The condition was asymptomatic, and she had noticed this anomaly a month prior to consultation. She received intramuscular injections of corticosteroids of unknown dosage at the affected site for the treatment of allergic rhinitis 4 months prior to her present consultation. The second patient, a 23-year-old woman, appeared at our hospital complaining of a similar macule 4 x 4 cm in size, which she noticed several weeks prior to her most recent consultation. She had no history of injury or injection at the site before the development of the condition (Fig. 1b). She had been under treatment for atopic dermatitis since early childhood and was treated only with topical applications of white petrolatum containing 2% salicylic acid for the past several years. In order to rule out the possibility of acquired partial lipodystrophy associated with localized scleroderma, lupus profundus and the other connective tissue diseases, a histological examination was performed for both patients. Histopathological analysis of the region exhibited a well-defined fat lobule composed of numerous small adipocytes (Fig. 1c) embedded in hyaline connective tissue. edema and dilated capillaries were noticeable in the subcutaneous tissue surrounding the area. Inflammatory cells were not prominent, although mononuclear cells were observed in both patients. No epidermal change was seen in either patient. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies revealed no deposits of immunoreactants in the skin of either patient. Immunohistochemical studies with the antibody against macrophage (anti-CD68 antigen; DAKO.) showed that positive cells were scattered around blood vessels and shrunken lipocytes in the subcutaneous tissues (Fig. 1d). Most of these cells in the fat lobules were also positive for mucin stains such as alcian blue. No abnormal findings came to light in the ordinary hematological and blood chemistry examinations of both patients. The autoantibody screening tests using antinuclear, anti-dna, anticentromere, and anti-Scl-70 antibodies were negative in both patients.
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4/40. Effect of subcutaneous leptin replacement therapy on bone metabolism in patients with generalized lipodystrophy.

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which plays an important role in energy homeostasis, has been suggested to have an influence on bone development and remodeling. However, it is not clear from animal studies whether leptin is a stimulator or an inhibitor of bone growth. cross-sectional studies in humans suggest that serum leptin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD), but these observations are not consistent, and whether this relationship is independent of obesity remains unclear. We therefore examined the effect of sc leptin administration on BMD and markers of bone turnover in two women, one with congenital generalized lipodystrophy and the other with acquired generalized lipodystrophy. Both patients had regular menstrual cycles. At baseline, the BMD for both patients, measured at the lumbar spine and total hip, was within 1 SD of the peak bone mass. There was no significant change in BMD in both patients after 16-18 months of leptin therapy. Similarly, concentrations of serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase or urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline and N-telopeptides remained unchanged after 6-8 months of leptin therapy, suggesting no effects of leptin on osteoblastic or osteoclastic activity. Our preliminary data suggest that sc leptin replacement in hypoleptinemic patients with generalized lipodystrophy has no effect on the mature adult skeleton.
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5/40. Localized involutional lipoatrophy: report of six cases.

    We herein report six cases of localized involutional lipoatrophy, who presented with a depressive plaque on the lateralis of the upper arm. All patients were female, and three had previous injections for allergic rhinitis at the affected sites before the development of lipoatrophy. One patient received intramuscular injection at the affected site when she had a cold. Histological examination showed fat lobules composed of small lipocytes in the hyaline connective tissue. Immunohistochemical examination revealed a number of CD68-positive macrophages in the fat lobules. We consider that localized involutional lipoatrophy is more common than has been reported, and is occasionally induced by local injections.
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6/40. Clinical features and metabolic derangements in acquired generalized lipodystrophy: case reports and review of the literature.

    We present clinical descriptions, metabolic features, and patterns of body fat loss of 16 patients with acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) seen by us over the last 10 years. In addition, we review 63 cases of AGL reported in the literature. Based on these data, we propose new diagnostic criteria for AGL, the essential criterion being selective loss of body fat from large regions of the body occurring after birth. We also propose a subclassification of AGL into 3 varieties, type 1, the panniculitis variety; type 2, the autoimmune disease variety; and type 3, the idiopathic variety, which affect nearly 25%, 25%, and 50% of patients, respectively. Most of the patients presented in childhood and adolescence. Females were affected approximately 3 times more than males. subcutaneous fat loss was severe and usually affected the face, trunk, abdomen, and extremities. In some patients, fat loss also involved the palms and soles and intraabdominal region; however, the bone marrow and retroorbital fat were preserved in all patients. Clinically, patients may have voracious appetite, fatigue, and acanthosis nigricans. hepatomegaly was common, mostly due to hepatic steatosis. Most AGL patients had fasting and/or postprandial hyperinsulinemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and low serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin. diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia were less prevalent in the panniculitis variety compared with the idiopathic and autoimmune varieties. The management of AGL includes cosmetic surgery for loss of fat. Severe hypertriglyceridemia should be treated with a very low-fat diet and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation from fish oils. Management of diabetes is difficult and may necessitate insulin therapy in large doses. insulin sensitizers such as metformin and thiazolidinediones have been used, although their long-term efficacy and safety remain unknown. Subcutaneous administration of recombinant leptin in AGL patients with hypoleptinemia effectively improves hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis. leptin therapy, however, remains investigational. Fibrates alone or in combination with statins may be used to treat hypertriglyceridemia.
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7/40. Membranous lipodystrophy (Nasu-Hakola disease) presenting an unusually benign clinical course.

    Membranous lipodystrophy is known as Nasu-Hakola disease. The main symptoms of membranous lipodystrophy are those of a progressive presenile dementia due to sclerosing leukoencephalopathy with skeletal polycystic lesions. There is no report detailing long-term follow-up of patients with membranous lipodystrophy. We present a 56-year-old woman with this disease who has not manifested any typical neuropsychiatric symptoms during the 16-year follow-up, and thus has had an unusually benign clinical course. The patient underwent curettage and bone grafts. Periodic examinations have been continued for 16 years from discharge. No recurrence of lesions or occurrence of new cystic lesions has been noted. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed none of the abnormal change which are reported in this disease. Our findings suggest that some patients with this disease may be fortunate enough to follow a relatively benign clinical course.
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8/40. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, mental retardation, deafness, short stature, and slender bones: a newly recognized syndrome?

    We present three patients with congenital generalized lipodystrophy, sensorineural deafness, low birth weight, short stature, delayed cognitive development, and progressive bone changes characterized by overtubulation and rarefaction of long bones with dense metaphyseal striations occurring in adolescence. Abnormalities of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, hepatosplenomegaly, acanthosis nigricans, and hirsutism were not found. Comparison of the condition of these patients with known syndromic lipodystrophies suggests that they represent a previously unrecognized genetic disorder. The occurrence in sibs born to consanguineous parents and a third patient from the same tribal unit suggest autosomal recessive inheritance.
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9/40. Peripheral motor-sensory neuropathy in membranous lipodystrophy (Nasu's disease): a case report.

    A case of membranous lipodystrophy (ML) with peripheral polyneuropathy (PN) is described. A 40-year-old woman presented with dementia, multiple lytic bone lesions with typical membranous material in adipose tissues and neurophysiological and pathological findings of peripheral neuropathy. We describe the first case of ML with PN. It is interesting since nerve involvement might be an additional cause of symptoms usually attributed to bone lesions.
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10/40. Membranous lipodystrophy. Case report and review of the literature.

    Membranous lipodystrophy (ML) is a rare hereditary disorder of adipose tissue characterized by polycystic bone lesions and progressive dementia. We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman with mechanical bone pain. Routine laboratory analyses revealed only a type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and hyperexcretion of urinary calcium. Roentgenograms of short and long bones showed symmetrical, well-defined, non-expansile cystic lesions. Bone biopsy found a yellow lipid-like substance in the osteolytic lesions and histopathological studies were non-specific. Neuropsychiatric examination, including cranial computerized tomography (CT), was found to be normal. According to clinical, analytical, radiological and histological findings ML was the diagnosis. No previous cases of ML have been reported in our country as we review the literature concerning this disease.
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