Cases reported "lipodystrophy"

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1/289. Partial lipodystrophy presenting with myopathy.

    A girl with partial lipodystrophy is described presenting with muscle weakness and developmental delay several years before lipoatrophy became apparent. The patient subsequently developed epilepsy, fatty liver, secondary amenorrhoea, hirsutism, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, and hypothyroidism. She remains weak with poor exercise tolerance. This case illustrates an atypical presentation of the Barraquer-Simon syndrome. ( info)

2/289. Protease inhibitor-induced lipodystrophy.

    The development of lipodystrophy as evidenced by central obesity, "moon facies," and a "buffalo hump" is a classical feature of Cushing's disease. Recently an association of "lipodystrophy" with the use of protease inhibitors has been reported. We describe a patient with lipodystrophy secondary to protease inhibitor therapy for hiv infection. ( info)

3/289. Post-traumatic anterior pituitary insufficiency developed in a patient with partial lipodystrophy.

    A case of partial lipodystrophy developing anterior pituitary insufficiency, chronic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary fibrosis was reported. The patient died of respiratory failure secondary to pituitary crisis during the hospital course. From the clinical course in recent several years and the postmortem examination the head injury following car accident in the past history was considered to be the most plausible cause of hypopituitarism. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis remained unresolved. ( info)

4/289. Lipodystrophia centrifugalis abdominalis infantilis in a 4-year-old Caucasian girl: association with partial iga deficiency and autoantibodies.

    We report the third case of lipodystrophia centrifugalis abdominalis outside East asia. A 4-year-old Caucasian girl developed an area of bluish erythema on the left side of the lower abdomen which spread centrifugally to the umbilical and inguinal areas with depression of the skin resulting from the loss of subcutaneous fat, surrounded by an erythematous border. This unusual skin disease was characterized by clinical and histological examination. Laboratory tests revealed a partial iga deficiency, antinuclear antibodies and IgG antibodies against gliadin. ( info)

5/289. Localized lipoatrophy due to recombinant growth hormone therapy in a child with 6.7 kilobase gene deletion isolated growth hormone deficiency.

    Local lipoatrophy is a well known complication of insulin treatment at injection sites and the etiology is thought to be a cross reaction with lipid tissues and insulin antibody. Although mild lipoatrophy during growth hormone treatment has been reported in the literature, severe local lipoatrophy in injection sites in the extremities has not yet been published. We report a patient with isolated GH deficiency due to 6.7 kb gene deletion who received high dose rhGH treatment and developed local lipoatrophies at injection sites without any antibody detection after 6 years of therapy. The etiology of the lipoatrophy is suspected to be by the direct lipolytic effect of high doses of rhGH. ( info)

6/289. A gene for congenital generalized lipodystrophy maps to human chromosome 9q34.

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL, Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, OMIM # 269700) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by near complete absence of adipose tissue from birth. Affected individuals have marked insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and acanthosis nigricans, and develop diabetes mellitus during teenage years. The genetic defect for CGL is unknown. A semi-automated genome-wide scan with a set of highly polymorphic short tandem repeats (STR) was carried out in 17 well-characterized pedigrees and identified a locus for CGL to chromosome 9q34. The maximum two-point lod score obtained was 3.6 at D9S1818 (theta(max) = 0.05). There was evidence for genetic heterogeneity (alpha = 0.73) and 2 of the pedigrees were unlinked. Multipoint linkage analysis excluding the 2 unlinked families yielded a peak lod score of 5.4 between loci D9S1818 and D9S1826. The CGL1 critical region harbors a plausible candidate gene encoding the retinoid x receptor alpha (RXRA) that plays a central role in adipocyte differentiation. Identification of the CGL gene(s) will contribute to our understanding of the adipocyte differentiation and elucidation of the mechanisms of insulin resistance in disorders of adipose tissue. ( info)

7/289. Newborn radial nerve palsy: report of four cases and review of published reports.

    Four newborns presented with isolated radial nerve palsy during the first 2 days of life. In three, there was a history of failure of progression of labor, which may have resulted in prolonged radial nerve compression. Furthermore, three infants had fat necrosis of the upper arm above the elbow, suggestive of compression of the radial nerve in the region of the spiral groove. Significant recovery of function was evident within 1 month in all four infants. The authors review published reports about the rare condition of isolated radial nerve palsy in the newborn. ( info)

8/289. A case of lipodystrophia centrifugalis abdominalis infantilis with morphea.

    A 5-year-old female developed three depressed lesions sequentially on her left hip, left upper arm and left achilles tendon; we diagnosed them as lipodystrophia centrifugalis abdominalis infantilis (LCAI). She also developed two sclerotic lesions, at almost the same time, on her left upper arm and left forearm; we diagnosed them as morphea. Clinical and histopathological examination revealed that the LCAI and morphea seen in our case were completely different. Although two other cases of co-existing LCAI and morphea have already been reported, they were not described in detail and their morphea lesions were adjacent to their LCAI lesions. We herein report a case of LCAI with morphea in which the lesions were not adjacent. ( info)

9/289. Hepatosplenomegalic lipidosis: what unless Gaucher? adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) with anemia, mesenteric lipodystrophy, increased plasma chitotriosidase activity and a homozygous lysosomal acid lipase -1 exon 8 splice junction mutation.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted for hepatosplenomegaly and anemia. bone marrow cytology showed "sea-blue histiocytes", vacuolated macrophages and plasma cells. As primary liver disease, malignancy or hematologic disorders were excluded, and plasma chitotriosidase activity was increased 27-fold over control, the presence of a lysosomal storage disease was suspected. Biochemical analysis of skin fibroblasts revealed normal glucocerebrosidase and sphingomyelinase activity, but lipid analysis showed a more than 15-fold accumulation of cholesterol esters within the cells. The activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) in fibroblast homogenates was decreased to 12% of control subjects. Mutational analysis of the patient's blood showed the homozygous G-->A mutation at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site (E8SJM-allele) known for adult cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD); the polymorphic background was that of the complex haplotype -6Thr, 2Gly, 894 G-->A. Based on clinical, laboratory, cytological and and biochemical findings, CESD can clearly be separated from other more frequent inherited lysosomal storage diseases, e.g. atypical forms of gaucher disease. ( info)

10/289. Vasculitis-induced membranous fat necrosis.

    Membranous fat necrosis (MFN) a distinct degenerative process of adipose tissue, is characterised by the presence of membranocystic lesions (MCLs) superimposed on a background of typical traumatic-type fat necrosis. MCLs are cysts, of varying size and shape, that are lined by an eosinophilic, crenulated membrane, having the staining properties of ceroid. Although MFN has been documented in varying systemic adipose tissue sites and in tumours, the pathogenesis of this pathological curiosity is unknown. To date, an ischemic basis for MFN has been the most proximate, and atherosclerosis and venous insufficiency, due to large and medium vessel disease, have been the most popular underlying clinical disorders. Although systemic vasculitis has been quoted as the underlying ischemic disorder in some patients, vasculitis has not been commented on nor demonstrated in tissue sections in association with MFN. In,reporting vasculitis-induced MFN, we document the occurrence of MFN in association with uncommon causes of vasculitis, namely: 1) Granulomatous vasculitis in a post-herpetic zosteriform scar; 2) cytomegalovirus-induced vasculitis in the clinical setting of systemic lupus erythematosus; and 3) Lymphocytic vasculitis in a tetanus toxoid immunization site reaction. ( info)
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