Cases reported "Liver Abscess, Amebic"

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1/39. Multiple liver abscesses: an unusual case which demonstrates the importance of ultrasonography in the detection of liver pathology.

    A 48-year-old caucasian male was admitted to hospital with right-sided chest pain, pyrexia and cough. He had no history of dysentery. He was treated with erythromycin and cotrimoxazole for right lower lobe pneumonia but failed to respond. Tender hepatomegaly developed and ultrasound scan demonstrated multiple abscesses in the liver. entamoeba histolytica was identified in his faeces. He was treated with intravenous metronidazole, chloramphenicol and gentamicin and then oral tinidazole, after which improvement was rapid. He was later transferred to australia. Subsequent abdominal CAT scan and aspiration of abscesses confirmed the diagnosis of multiple amoebic liver abscesses with secondary bacterial infection. Final treatment was with oral ciprofloxacin and metronidazole for four weeks. ultrasonography is a noninvasive technique which is invaluable in the diagnosis of abdominal and especially liver pathology. This technique should be available in larger centres in tropical countries. Anyone living in or visiting the tropics should be aware of possible exotic diseases presenting in unusual ways.
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2/39. Colonic perforation in unsuspected amebic colitis.

    Unsuspected amebic colitis presenting as inflammatory bowel disease, as in our patient, has been previously reported (4, 7, 8). Misdiagnosis, delay in antibiotic treatment, and institution of immunosuppression were the result of failure to identify the parasite in stool specimens and have resulted in suffering, morbidity, mortality, and surgery. In all previously reported cases, routine stool studies failed to identify E. histolytica (4, 7, 8). The correct diagnosis was only established after reviewing the surgical specimen or biopsies obtained endoscopically. Because the erroneous diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease can lead to disastrous complications, it is imperative to exclude amebic colitis prior to undertaking steroid therapy, especially in patients with a prior history of travel to or residence in areas with endemic E. histolytica (17). We recommend obtaining at least three stool specimens for microscopic examination, as well as testing for serum amebic antibody. patients should submit fresh stool specimens directly to the laboratory to allow for prompt diagnostic evaluation. Such an approach might lead to the improved diagnosis of amebiasis.
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3/39. Ruptured liver abscess with fulminant amoebic colitis: case report with review.

    Amoebic liver abscess is the commonest extra intestinal manifestation of amoebiasis. Intraperitoneal rupture of liver abscess and fulminant necrotizing amoebic colitis are rare occurrences which complicate a severe form of invasive disease caused by entamoeba histolytica. These complications are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Synchronous pathological lesions in colon and liver are rare. Still rare is the occurrence of complicated colonic and hepatic invasive amoebiasis presenting as an acute abdomen. One such presentation of ruptured liver abscess and necrotizing amoebic colitis in a 70 year old male which was successfully managed is being reported.
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4/39. Amebic liver abscess and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a report of three cases.

    Invasive amebiasis rarely occurs in homosexual men and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected individuals and has not been regarded as a beacon for concomitant hiv infection. We encountered a bisexual man with a protracted course of amebic liver abscess and amebic colitis. In the presence of fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, and elevated serum aminotransferase levels, hiv infection was suspected and then confirmed by a de novo seroconversion of hiv antibody. Subsequently, we noted two consecutive patients with amebic liver abscess, also later found to be infected with hiv. The ameba obtained from these three cases was identified as entamoeba histolytica by amplification of 16S ribosomal rna by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. This observation suggests that amebic liver abscess and colitis can be presentations for hiv infection in the far east. Thus, the local patients with invasive amebiasis, especially those with a protracted course or with risk factors of hiv infection, should be tested for hiv.
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5/39. Amoebic liver abscess in pregnancy.

    We describe the case of an amoebic liver abscess (ALA) presenting in the third trimester of pregnancy which raised both diagnostic and treatment dilemmas as well as being associated with preterm labour. Amoebic liver abscess is caused by the protozoan organism entamoeba histolytica which is endemic in many parts of the developing world. Invasion of the colonic mucosa results in the clinical syndrome of amoebic dysentery and in some cases dissemination to the liver or other organs occurs resulting in abscess formation. Amoebic liver abscess is a rare complication of pregnancy and there are few reports in the world literature, these being mostly from endemic areas. We present here the case of a caucasian female who presented with an amoebic liver abscess in the third trimester of pregnancy, thirteen months after returning to australia from a short holiday in Bali.
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6/39. Massive amebic liver abscess--an unusual presentation.

    A 40-year-old woman presented with a huge lump in the right half of the abdomen and irregular menses. ultrasonography showed a cystic lump with septations, extending from the upper abdomen to the pelvis; the right ovary was not seen. On exploration, there was a large cyst arising from the right lobe of the liver; the aspirate was bilious. Since the cyst wall was adherent to retroperitoneal structures, complete excision was not possible. A roux-en-Y loop of jejunum was anastomosed to the cyst wall. biopsy of the wall showed inflammatory granulation tissue with trophozoites of entamoeba histolytica. She was treated with metronidazole, and recovered uneventfully.
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7/39. Invasive amebiasis: challenges in diagnosis in a non-endemic country (kuwait).

    Invasive zymodemes of the enteric protozoan entamoeba histolytica infect the large intestine and cause extra-intestinal lesions such as amebic liver abscess (ALA). The clinical manifestations of ALA are protean, particularly in patients presenting in a non-endemic, desert country such as kuwait, and diagnosis becomes problematic. In this study, we present cases of ALA to illustrate the clinical and diagnostic challenges. For serodiagnosis of ALA, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) with the ImmunoTab assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for this geographic region. We tested sera of 110 patients with ALA, 1,224 patients suspected of having invasive amebic infection, and 50 Europeans with no travel history to an amebic-endemic area. The IHA was simple, rapid, easy to perform, and reliable (sensitivity = 99%, specificity > 95%). The performance of the IHA in detecting ALA in suspected cases was significantly better than that of the ELISA and the ImmunoTab test. Compared with the IHA, both the ELISA and ImmunoTab assay detected relatively higher numbers of false-positive cases (4.7% and 3.6%, respectively). With the availability of ultrasound and computed tomography scans, the serology correlates excellently with the clinical presentation. In chronic cases where fibrosis may be present around the abscess, the IHA has limitations, as in the follow-up of treated patients. Pitfalls in diagnosis are highlighted by discussing the differential diagnosis of ALA from bacterial hepatic abscesses and infected hydatid cysts. Most importantly, the IHA in such cases was invariably at a titer that is considered not significant.
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8/39. A case of amebic liver abscess complicated by hemobilia due to rupture of hepatic artery aneurysm.

    We report the case of a 51-year-old man with hepatic amebic abscess complicated by hepatic artery aneurysm. The patient first presented with peritonitis caused by perforating appendicitis. Surgical treatment resolved peritonitis but entamoeba histolytica was detected in the colonic mucosa. Subsequently, liver abscess developed and the size of the abscess increased gradually after surgery in spite of continued treatment with metronidazole. Brown pus was drained from the abscess but 13 days after the drainage process the patient complained of right upper abdominal pain and the drained fluid became blood-colored and stool became tarry in color. Enhanced computed tomography showed a hepatic artery aneurysm that had ruptured into the liver abscess and duodenoscopy revealed bleeding from the ampulla of vater. Transcatheter arterial embolization with several steel coils was successfully performed which resulted in cessation of bleeding from the ampulla of vater. The patient was discharged without any complications five weeks after rupture of the aneurysm. Our case demonstrates rupture of the hepatic artery aneurysm as a rare complication of amebic liver abscess and the effectiveness of interventional embolotherapy in this condition.
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9/39. Defective production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in a patient with recurrent amebic liver abscess.

    Previously, we reported the case of a man in the fourth decade of life afflicted with three independent episodes of amebic liver abscesses over a period of 4 years. Previous evidence has indicated that the cellular immune response is involved in protection against recurrent invasive amebic infection, and macrophage-mediated effector mechanisms appear important for host resistance to entamoeba histolytica infection. The aim of the present work was to investigate locomotor activity and oxidative burst function of peripheral mononuclear cells of this individual after healing of the third amebic liver abscess. A locomotion assay using Boyden chemotaxis chambers and the respiratory burst evaluated by chemiluminescence were performed in both mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. Levels of salivary IgA and serum IgG anti-amebic antibodies were followed during 48 months after the second amebic liver abscess. Results obtained showed a deficiency in MP but not in PMN leukocyte respiratory burst. respiratory burst is a major microbicidal mechanism in MP leukocytes; this also has been considered as a host resistance strategy against E. histolytica. It may be at least one risk factor in our patient that was responsible for recurrence of amebic liver abscess.
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10/39. Case report: amoebic liver abscess complicated by a hepatoduodenal fistula.

    Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is a common extra-intestinal presentation of amoebiasis caused by entamoeba histolytica. The liver abscess may be complicated by rupture into adjacent structures. Common organs involved include thorax, peritoneum and pericardium. rupture into the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare. We report a patient who developed a hepatoduodenal fistula complicating an amoebic liver abscess. Suspicions were raised on finding air in the liver abscess on ultrasound scanning. Diagnosis was confirmed on a water-soluble (Gastrografin) swallow (Fig. 1 a,b). Complications of ALA are associated with a high morbidity and mortality and early diagnosis is important. To our knowledge only one previous case of a hepatoduodenal fistula complicating an ALA with radiological confirmation has been reported.
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