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1/8. Three elderly patients with lower esophageal cancer successfully treated by transhiatal esophagectomy assisted by mediastinoscopy.

    mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy recently has been applied in patients with intrathoracic esophageal cancer. Elderly patients with esophageal cancer experience several types of complications and often cannot undergo standard transthoracic esophagectomy. In this study, three elderly patients with preoperative complications underwent mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal cancer located in the lower part of the esophagus. Patient 1 was an 80-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Patient 2 was a 78-year-old man with bronchial asthma. Patient 3 was an 81-year-old-man with diabetes mellitus and an atherosclerotic obstruction of the lower extremities. In these patients, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy concomitant with reconstruction by means of a gastric tube was performed. Lymph node dissections of the middle and lower mediastinum and of the abdomen, including the regions surrounding the left gastric and celiac arteries, were performed. postoperative complications developed only in patient 1; minor leakage of the esophagogastrostomy and high bilirubinemia were observed. Metastasis was detected in the lymph nodes surrounding the celiac artery in patient 1 and surrounding the left gastric artery in patients 2 and 3. Patient 2 died of pneumonia 18 months later, but the other patients have been well, without recurrence of the cancer after surgery. In conclusion, mediastinoscopy-assisted transhiatal esophagectomy has some benefits for elderly esophageal cancer patients who experience preoperative complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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2/8. In vivo microscopic examination of the esophagus for the detection of cancer before liver transplantation in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma is relatively common in alcohol and tobacco abusers, and it can develop rapidly after liver transplantation. We report the early detection of an esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis, diagnosed during the pre-enlistment work-up that he was undergoing before liver transplantation. This lesion had not been detected at standard endoscopy, but was well characterized using in vivo staining and microscopic examination with an "endocytoscopy" system.
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ranking = 4
keywords = esophagus
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3/8. Abrikosoff's tumor of the esophagus: case report and review of literature.

    Abrikosoff's tumor or granular cell tumor is a neoplasm of neural origin, usually located in the head and neck region. A majority of these neoplasms are benign. Only 4-6% of granular cell tumors are located in the gastrointestinal tract. It is extremely unusual for these tumors to be located in the esophagus. This case is being reported in view of the rarity of this lesion. A brief review of literature with stress on diagnostic evaluation and management issues is also included.
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ranking = 5
keywords = esophagus
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4/8. Perforation of esophagus after endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy. incidence and clues to pathogenesis.

    To determine the true incidence of endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS)-related esophageal perforation, a retrospective analysis of 900 EVS procedures using sodium tetradecyl sulfate performed on 170 patients during a five-year period (1980-1985) was carried out. autopsy data of all patients who received EVS and who died (32 patients, 100%) during this period were available to confirm the diagnosis of perforation. esophageal perforation was confirmed in 5 (2.9%) and was seen in patients with advanced alcoholic liver disease. Importantly, most patients did not manifest features of an esophageal leak, but presented instead as a deterioration in condition and died after a mean ( /- SD) 14 /- 5.2 days. Analysis of the clinical and EVS data reveals that the risk of developing perforation is high when EVS is performed during active bleeding. The extravariceal location of sclerosant and microabscesses may be important predisposing factors. In our experience large-dose injection, deep ulceration, and balloon tamponade are less likely predisposing factors of this complication.
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ranking = 4
keywords = esophagus
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5/8. Development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus after endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy.

    We describe the case of a 45-yr-old white male with portal hypertension and presumed Laennec's cirrhosis who developed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus 8 months after completion of a course of endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy. The epidemiology and natural history of esophageal cancer and their relationship to our patient are analyzed. This report emphasizes that squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postsclerotherapy dysphagia. Further studies will be required to determine whether or not esophageal variceal sclerotherapy is associated coincidently or causally with the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in patients at increased risk for this condition.
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ranking = 7
keywords = esophagus
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6/8. Surgical repair of esophageal perforation in cirrhotic patients with varices.

    A 51-year-old woman, a known alcohol abuser, had sclerotherapy for esophageal varices from portal hypertension. A perforation of the distal esophagus, diagnosed several days later, could not be closed primarily at thoracotomy due to extensive bleeding. The method of "exclusion and diversion in continuity" was modified by ligation of the esophagogastric junction with absorbable suture over a tube stent. The perforation healed and patency of the esophageal lumen was demonstrated 2 weeks later. This alternative life-saving procedure may be useful in chronic esophageal perforation, especially in cirrhotic or otherwise debilitated patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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7/8. Development of esophageal cancer after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices: three case reports.

    We report here three cases of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus following endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices. All three patients were men and cigarette smokers, with a mean age of 58.3 /- 5.0 years. hepatitis B and C virus infection tests were negative, and alcoholic cirrhosis was present in each patient. The interval between sclerotherapy and the development of carcinoma was 9, 10, and 33 months, in the respective cases. The sclerosant used was 5% ethanolamine oleate with a mean total volume of 51.0 /- 18.9 ml. While we have no evidence of a direct relationship between sclerotherapy and esophageal cancer, in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis who have risk factors for esophageal cancer there may be an acceleration of the potential malignancy, as a result of the chronic inflammation related to sclerotherapy. Such patients should be closely followed, using endoscopy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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8/8. Development of early squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for esophageal varices.

    A 56-year-old Japanese man with liver cirrhosis was admitted to Kyushu University Hospital in September, 1986 for the treatment of large esophageal varices. endoscopy revealed four tortuous folds of large esophageal varices, extending proximally from the esophagocardial junction to 34 cm from the dental arch. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy was performed on the lower esophagus using 5% ethanolamine oleate, and esophageal varices were completely eradicated in 5 sessions with a total of 70 ml of sclerosant. In March 1991, 4 years and 6 months after the treatment, endoscopy revealed a mild redness and an irregular surface 33 cm from the dental arch. The histologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. The possible relationship between sclerotherapy and the development of esophageal carcinoma should be considered.
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ranking = 5
keywords = esophagus
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