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1/36. aged budd-chiari syndrome attributed to chronic deep venous thrombosis with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    budd-chiari syndrome is a rare disease, but there are many known causes. Recent studies showed that it can be an acquired lesion resulting from thrombosis in some elderly patients. We report a 74-year-old man with budd-chiari syndrome attributed to chronic deep venous thrombosis and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. When he was aged 45 years, stasis ulcers of the lower extremities appeared. cerebral infarction and left hemiparesis occurred at age 71. ultrasonography, venacavography, and three-dimensional-magnetic resonance imaging on admission demonstrated total obstruction of the inferior vena cava with several massive thrombi and developed collateral vessels. Although the etiology of the thrombosis remained obscure, we made some speculative assumptions that chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (which is frequently observed in cirrhosis) or hereditary coagulopathy could be involved, from his familial history of thrombotic phenomena and a severe deficiency of clotting inhibitors. Despite the high mortality of untreated budd-chiari syndrome reported in previous studies, this patient had been alive for about 30 years from the suspected onset.
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ranking = 1
keywords = thrombosis, deep
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2/36. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with hepatic cirrhosis.

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is not a recognized complication of end-stage liver disease. A case of sagittal sinus thrombosis in a 44-year-old male with end-stage hepatic cirrhosis is described. Recurrent seizures were the only manifestation. work-up revealed severe deficiency of protein c, protein s, and antithrombin iii. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin and underwent an orthotopic liver transplant after three months. Follow-up helical CT venogram showed resolution of the sinus thrombosis.
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ranking = 0.99940407158633
keywords = thrombosis
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3/36. Fatal bleeding from a residual vein at the esophageal ulcer base after successful endoscopic variceal ligation.

    Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is now one of the accepted treatment options for esophageal varices, and the safety of this procedure has been proved. However, we experienced a patient who had a fatal massive bleeding after successful EVL for ruptured esophageal varix. Postmortem study revealed a residual vein at the base of the esophageal ulceration associated with the ligation, which was believed to be the site of the fatal bleeding. His platelet counts and prothrombin time were not very impaired. Our case indicates that fatal massive bleeding can occur in patients after successful EVL without specific risk factors and indicates the importance of the awareness of the possibility of these complications.
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ranking = 0.15043476392601
keywords = vein
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4/36. Percutaneous removal of a fractured endostent remnant from the portal vein.

    We report the case of a liver transplant patient who developed a biliary stricture 3 years postoperatively which was treated with an endostent. During endoscopic removal, the stent fractured and a portion of it lodged itself within the intrahepatic portion of a portal vein branch. The endostent fragment was retrieved percutaneously using interventional radiology techniques. risk factors for endostent fracture and migration as well as various percutaneous retrieval methods are reviewed in this article.
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ranking = 0.15043476392601
keywords = vein
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5/36. Control of isolated gastric varices by combination therapy using embolization and endoscopic scleroligation therapy.

    Balloon-occluded retrograde venous obliteration is a powerful new technique for eliminating gastric varices. However anatomic considerations may preclude its use in some instances. Two cases are reported in which combination embolization followed by endoscopic injection scleroligation therapy eradicated isolated gastric varices where balloon-occluded retrograde venous obliteration was impossible. Two men with alcoholic cirrhosis were admitted with bleeding gastric varices. Inability to access variceal venous drainage precluded balloon-occluded retrograde venous obliteration. In Case 1, transileocolic vein obliteration left gastric embolization, and partial splenic embolization only partially eradicated gastric varices. In Case 2, percutaneous transhepatic obliteration, left gastric embolization, and partial splenic embolization were only partially successful. In both cases, endoscopic injection scleroligation therapy was performed adjunctively. Endoscopic injection scleroligation therapy completely eradicated gastric varices in both patients following partially successful embolization therapy. These cases demonstrate the importance of individualizing treatment of esophageal varices, the value of combination therapy, and the effectiveness of endoscopic injection scleroligation therapy for treating varices.
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ranking = 0.030086952785201
keywords = vein
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6/36. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunt: diagnosis by saline contrast bubbles in the pulmonary veins.

    A 54-year-old man with end-stage cirrhosis of the liver presented for evaluation of dyspnea. Intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting was suspected. Transthoracic echocardiography with agitated saline contrast injection from the right antecubital vein was performed. Late arrival of saline contrast bubbles in the left atrium by pulmonary veins leading to complete left heart opacification confirmed the diagnosis of significant intrapulmonary shunting. This case and images illustrate the use of agitated saline contrast in combination with transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis of intrapulmonary arteriovenous fistula.
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ranking = 0.18052171671121
keywords = vein
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7/36. Fatal spontaneous gallbladder variceal bleeding in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    gallbladder varices are unusual ectopic varices that may develop in patients with portal hypertension, particularly in those with portal vein occlusion. In rare instances, these varices may cause hemobilia, life-threatening bleeding, or even rupture of the gallbladder. We report the first case of a 41-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis and patent portal vein who developed massive hemoperitoneum from spontaneous rupture of varices in the gallbladder fossa. The diagnosis of gallbladder varices eluded conventional imaging and was made only at autopsy. gallbladder variceal hemorrhage is a rare, but potentially catastrophic complication of cirrhosis.
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ranking = 0.060173905570403
keywords = vein
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8/36. Gross chylous ascites in cirrhosis with massive portal vein thrombosis: diagnostic value of lymphoscintigraphy. A case report and review of the literature.

    chylous ascites is an uncommon condition, which could be due to various causes. We report a case of gross chylous ascites in a patient with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis. It is confirmed that gross chylous ascites in a patient with cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis heralds an ominous prognosis for the patient. Results also demonstrate that common therapeutic interventions confer minimal benefit to the patient, whose survival may be limited to a few months. The use of lymphoscintigraphy as a convenient method for diagnostic exploration of the chylous ascites is emphasized, as it does not lead to complications or adverse effects, and can be readily repeated as needed.
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ranking = 1.3264038619091
keywords = thrombosis, vein thrombosis, vein
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9/36. Profound imbalance of pro-fibrinolytic and anti-fibrinolytic factors (tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1) and severe bleeding diathesis in a patient with cirrhosis: correction by liver transplantation.

    A 49-year-old male with alcoholic cirrhosis suffered several spontaneous, life-threatening, deep muscle bleeding episodes. Laboratory evaluation indicated excessive fibrinolysis with low plasminogen, low alpha2-antiplasmin, undetectable plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) activity, high tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity and high t-PA antigen. Treatment with oral anti-fibrinolytic agents prevented further bleeding episodes. Decompensated cirrhosis eventually necessitated orthotopic liver transplantation. Post-operatively, the patient did not require oral anti-fibrinolytic agents, and there were no significant bleeding events. Circulating PAI-1 activity, t-PA activity and antigen normalized by 3 months post transplant. In short, the profound bleeding diathesis, as well as the imbalance in t-PA and PAI-1 levels, corrected after liver transplantation. Recognition of such patients is important, because the bleeding diathesis is an indication rather than a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation.
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ranking = 0.00011918568273491
keywords = deep
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10/36. Mesoatrial shunt: a new treatment for the budd-chiari syndrome.

    A patient is presented with the budd-chiari syndrome. Because of a thrombosed inferior vena cava, none of the standard portal-systemic shunts could be utilized for decompression of the engorged liver. A new shunt constructed by interposing a Dacron graft between the superior mesenteric vein and the right atrium was performed. portal pressure was reduced by the shunt from 30 cm of H2O to 10 cm of H2O. Patency has been confirmed post-operatively by catheterization and with angiography. The patient is asymptomatic with normal liver function tests nine months following the procedure. A surgical approach is outlined for symptomatic patients with the Budd-Chairi Syndrom.
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ranking = 0.030086952785201
keywords = vein
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