Cases reported "Liver Cirrhosis"

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1/24. Unusual bilateral peritoneopleural communication associated with cirrhotic ascites: detected by TC-99m sulphur colloid peritoneoscintigraphy.

    hydrothorax is an infrequent but well-recognized complication in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and patients with cirrhotic ascites. It is usually found on the right side; an incidence on both sides is rarely reported. We describe the scintigraphic diagnosis of unusual bilateral peritoneopleural communication in a patient with cirrhotic ascites.
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2/24. An inferior mesenteric-caval shunt via the internal iliac vein with portosystemic encephalopathy.

    We report here a case of an unusual extrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt in a 37-year-old woman without liver cirrhosis or portal hypertension, who developed portal systemic encephalopathy. angiography demonstrated an inferior mesenteric-caval shunt characterized by the presence of direct communication of the inferior mesenteric vein with the left internal iliac vein. After the treatment with percutaneous transcatheter embolization of the shunt via a femoral vein approach using coils, she had no episode of portal systemic encephalopathy.
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3/24. The palliative care needs of people with intellectual disabilities: a case study.

    This article describes a case study that aimed to consider the unique needs of a client who has intellectual disabilities and a terminal illness. data collection included semi-structured interviews with the client and professionals involved in his care. Five broad sets of themes emerged from these interviews. Although these are not unique to the rapidly evolving field of palliative care, they are less familiar within the specialism of intellectual disabilities, i.e. difficulties and delays around diagnosing the illness, consent issues, conflicts between the carers and the family, truth-telling, and the need for professional support. Professionals who work with a person with intellectual disabilities and a terminal illness need to be aware that special issues may arise. The effects of potential problems with comprehension and communication need to be assessed individually. A close collaboration between all professionals, carers, family and the client, and the mutual sharing of expertise, is essential to ensure the best possible care.
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4/24. Hepatic hydropericardium.

    A 41-year-old man with chronic hepatitis c and cirrhosis presented with pericardial effusion and tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. Nine liters of pericardial fluid was drained with complete resolution of his ascites. He represented with recurrent pericardial effusions despite salt restriction and diuretic therapy. Subsequent radionuclide scans demonstrated a direct connection between the peritoneal and pericardial spaces. A pericardial window was formed but despite this there was recurrence of pericardial effusion and pleural effusion. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation 7 months later and no recurrence of pleural or pericardial effusion was observed following transplantation. We believe this is the first case report of pericardial effusion secondary to cirrhotic ascites and a communication between the peritoneal and pericardial cavities.
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5/24. wernicke encephalopathy presented in the form of postoperative delirium in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE: Although wernicke encephalopathy has been reported in the oncological literature, it has not previously been reported in postoperative cancer patients. methods: In this communication, we report a patient of hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis who developed wernicke encephalopathy in the form of postoperative delirium. Preoperatively, the patient had a very good appetite and had eaten all the food of an 1800 cal/day diet until 1 day before operation. The operation was done without any complications. The patient developed delirium 2 days after the lobectomy of the liver. The level of delirium remained unchanged until administration of thiamine starting on day 7 postoperatively, which resulted in palliation of delirium without brain damage. Laboratory data demonstrated that the serum thiamine level at day 6 postoperatively was below the lower limit of normal. As the mechanism of wernicke encephalopathy, we thought that decreased ability to store thiamine due to liver cirrhosis led to depletion of thiamine faster than had been expected. RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE research: In cancer patients, clinicians must always remain aware of the possibility of wernicke encephalopathy, especially in patients with liver dysfunction, which decreases the ability to store thiamine in the liver. Early detection and intervention may alleviate the symptoms of delirium and prevent irreversible brain damage.
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6/24. Sonographic evaluation of portal hypertension in children.

    Portal hypertension, an expected consequence of cirrhosis, often has an insidious course in children. A noninvasive technique using abdominal sonography has been previously employed by several investigators as a means of diagnosing this condition. Their technique involves sonographically measuring the diameter of the lesser omentum, which increases as a result of engorged collaterals. In this communication, the method is successfully employed in two children, an infant in whom cirrhosis developed who eventually died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and one whose portal hypertension was relieved after orthotopic liver transplantation. Although successful in these two instances, the theoretical basis on which this technique is based is critically evaluated. Anatomical relationships are reviewed that would caution sonographers who attempt to duplicate these studies. Modifications of the technique that will minimize potential false positive results are also discussed.
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7/24. Clinical utility of pulsed Doppler flowmetry in patients with portal hypertension.

    The recently developed Doppler flowmetry system that consists of an electronic sector and a pulsed Doppler flowmeter, is capable of determining the direction of blood flow in large veins visible by ultrasonography and measuring blood flow. It is noninvasive and can be performed in patients on ambulatory basis at the time of routine ultrasound examination. In this communication, clinical utility of pulsed Doppler flowmetry was tested in 20 patients with portal hypertension. Doppler flowmetry proved useful in differential diagnosis of splenorenal shunt and cystic disease, diagnosis of arterioportal shunt, diagnosis of portal vein occlusion, demonstration of hepatofugal flow in the splenic vein, and prediction of esophageal varices by the demonstration of hepatofugal flow in an enlarged left gastric vein.
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8/24. Congenital mesenteric arterio-portal fistula: report of a case.

    A male patient with an arterio-portal fistula resulting from a mesenteric arteriovenous malformation, who developed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis, is presented herein. The malformation was considered to be congenital in origin and its location made any ablative surgical procedure impossible. Such alternative treatments as ligation of the afferent arteries, followed by transarterial embolization were therefore given, but both were unsuccessful. We also present a review of the literatures of mesenteric arteriovenous fistula. Radical surgical approach for this rare entity is proposed. The case reported here as related to mesenteric arteriovenous communications of congenital origin is the seventh such case published, and the first which was ever found to be located in the trunk of the superior mesenteric artery.
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9/24. Severe pulmonary hypertension and multiple left coronary arterial fistulas in association with congenital hepatic fibrosis.

    Multiple fistulous communications between the left anterior descending coronary artery and the left ventricle were found in a 55 year old woman with congenital hepatic fibrosis presenting with breathlessness. At cardiac catheterisation severe pulmonary hypertension was also found. In view of the persistent hypoprothrombinaemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and the multiple fistulas the risk of operation was thought to be unacceptable and she continues on medical treatment.
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10/24. Plain radiographic, nuclear medicine and angiographic observations of hepatogenic pulmonary angiodysplasia.

    Clinical and radiological findings of hepatogenic pulmonary angiodysplasia are reported in two cases. Myriad spidery pulmonary blood vessels are seen on plain radiographs and verified with right to left intrapulmonary shunting on pulmonary angiogram and pulmonary isotopic perfusion scan. Pathophysiology and differential diagnosis are discussed. We propose that the term "pulmonary angio-dysplasia" should include: 1) Pulmonary telangiectasia 2) Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome) 3) Classical discrete pulmonary arteriovenous fistula 4) Hepatogenic pulmonary angiodysplasia: pulmonary arteriovenous communications with right to left shunting secondary to hepatic cirrhosis.
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