Cases reported "Liver Neoplasms"

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1/15. Solitary liver metastasis from Hurthle cell thyroid cancer: a case report and review of the literature.

    Metastasis to the liver from thyroid cancer is a rare event with a reported frequency of 0.5%. Metastatic liver involvement from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is nearly always multiple or diffuse and usually found along with other distant metastases (lung, bone and brain). The authors describe a patient with a solitary liver metastasis from Hurthle cell thyroid cancer, which appeared during long-term follow-up. The lesion was diagnosed by progressive increase of thyroglobulin in the serum and imaged with I-131 whole body scan, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and F-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan. For patients with a Tg level above some arbitrary limit, the administration of a large dose (3.7-5.5 GBq; 100-150 mCi) of I-131, in order to obtain a highly sensitive Tx whole body scan (WBS), remains the best diagnostic strategy. However, on very rare occasions, physiological enteric radioactivity can hide possible abdominal lesions and further indepth studies, such as FDG-PET scans, are sometimes necessary.
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2/15. Cancer risk following exposure to Thorotrast: overview in relation to a case report.

    Radioactive measurements and histopathologic findings are described in a patient administered Thorotrast, a radiographic contrast agent, 36 y prior to death and compared with cancer risks noted in epidemiologic studies. This person [designated as U.S. uranium Registry (USUR) Case 1001] had prearranged for donation of her body to the USUR and the National Cancer Institute for study. Elevated levels of radioactivity were noted in those organs in which excess cancers have been reported in epidemiologic surveys of Thorotrast-exposed subjects. Hepatic tissue in USUR Case 1001 was estimated to have received an average lifetime absorbed dose of 16.2 Gy, based on radiochemical analyses, consistent with the high risks for liver tumors reported in all studied populations. Thorotrast was present throughout the bone marrow of USUR Case 1001, who died secondary to complications of refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Elevated risks for acute myeloid leukemia have been noted in Thorotrast patients, and more recently, cases of RAEB and RAEB in transformation have been reported. The thorium decay series includes the bone-seeking radionuclides 224Ra and 228Ra, which have been associated with high risks for osteosarcomas, although the association between Thorotrast and bone cancer is not as convincing. The skeleton of USUR Case 1001, however, contained significant levels of radioactivity. Other tissues evaluated in USUR Case 1001 included lung, eye, kidney, and breast, which did not contain elevated levels of radioactivity.
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3/15. Unusually elevated liver radioactivity on F-18 FDG PET in Hodgkin's disease: hepatic 'superscan'.

    Increased focal concentration of FDG in the background of relatively lower normal hepatocyte uptake is usually regarded as the hallmark of metastatic involvement of the liver from a known primary. The authors present the clinical, radiologic, and laboratory profile of a very unusual hepatic uptake pattern in a case of hodgkin disease, in which the FDG PET showed intensely diffuse hepatic tracer uptake and was the earliest indicator of extensive hepatic involvement by the disease process. The diagnosis of hepatic involvement with lymphoma was inferred. As experience with FDG PET is growing, it is important to become familiar with the various physiological and pathologic FDG uptake patterns. The term "hepatic superscan", demonstrating intense diffuse hepatic tracer uptake coupled with surprisingly low brain and cardiac FDG uptake, owes its origin from its apparent similarity with the superscan seen in conventional skeletal scintigraphy and represents an entity hitherto undescribed.
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keywords = radioactivity
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4/15. tissue distribution of Thorotrast and role of internal irradiation in carcinogenesis.

    carcinogenesis in Thorotrastosis has been assumed due to direct bombardment by alpha-particle with high linear energy transfer during decay of 232Th. To revisit the mechanism of carcinogenesis by Thorotrast (THR), we examined the tissue distribution of THR granules and two-dimensional distribution of radioactivity in the organs of Thorotrastosis patients and studied their spatial relationship to histopathological changes. The high radioactivity in the patients' organ was predominantly derived from decay of thorium series and showed unique distribution, while the far lower natural radioactivity was mainly from uranium series decay and fairly evenly distributed. It was found that a large majority of THR granules were phagocytized by macrophages and were embedded in extensive fibrosis. Cancer was rarely in the center of THR deposition but rather at a distance from the deposits. These observations may indicate that the predominant feature of THR deposition is the tissue damage by direct hit of alpha-particles and subsequent fibrosis. The effect of THR resembles action of toxic chemical agents, as several authors have pointed out. We therefore assume that carcinogenesis in Thorotrastosis is a combination of events, such as regeneration of liver tissue after radiation damage, emission of secondary electrons, ionization of the surrounding tissue, and beta- or gamma-ray from daughter nuclei of thorium (Th). In this context, the role of alpha-particle is important but more intriguing.
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5/15. Surgery for colorectal cancer guided by radiodetecting probe. Clinical evaluation using monoclonal antibody B72.3.

    Radioactive antibodies that react with tumour-associated antigens to "tag" antigen-positive tumour cell deposits were given to 20 patients with primary or recurrent colorectal cancer. The tumour associated antigen TAG 72-specific monoclonal antibody B72.3 labelled with 125-iodine was used, and the radioactivity in the tumour was sought during operation with a hand-held gamma detecting probe. Tumour was detected by the probe in 7 of 15 patients with primary cancer, with a mean tumour: normal tissue ratio of 3.9, and in 4 of 5 patients with recurrent disease, with a mean tumour: normal tissue ratio of 2.0. Immunohistochemical analysis of surgical specimens confirmed the results of the intraoperative detection. The incidence of TAG 72-positive tumours (11/20, 55%), detected by immunohistochemistry, was lower than the 80% in the other series, possibly because of sampling errors or because the cases studied were uncomplicated with small primary tumours. Results obtained with the probe were instrumental in modifying the operation in two of the four "positive" patients with recurrences, allowing the removal of tumour masses that would otherwise have been overlooked.
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6/15. Relationship of uptake of technetium-99m(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan by hepatocellular carcinoma to prognosis.

    The relationship of technetium-99m(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT) uptake by hepatic tumors to survival was studied in 162 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The median survival of 82 patients in whom hepatic tumors showed increased uptake in delayed 99mTc-PMT imaging was 1013 days, which was significantly longer than the survival time of 398.5 days of 80 patients in whom hepatic tumors did not show increased uptake of radioactivity (p less than 0.002). The relationship between the ability of hepatic tumors to take up 99mTc-PMT and survival was also analyzed in patients with HCC showing filling defects in 99mTc-colloid liver images and, in relation to the therapy, serum values of bilirubin and alpha-fetoprotein. Results indicated that the degree of 99mTc-PMT uptake by hepatic tumors is closely correlated with the prognosis of patients with HCC.
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keywords = radioactivity
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7/15. Specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma by delayed hepatobiliary imaging.

    For assessment of the value of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with technetium 99m (99mTc)-(Sn)-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT) for specific diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, 88 patients with various malignant and benign liver diseases (49 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 4 with cholangiocellular carcinoma, 10 with metastatic liver carcinoma, 2 with liver cysts, 2 with liver hemangioma, 1 with liver abscess, 2 with intrahepatic lithiasis, 12 with liver cirrhosis, and 6 with chronic hepatitis) were studied. In 20 (41%) of the 49 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, greater uptake of 99mTc-PMT by the tumor than by the surrounding liver tissue was seen in delayed hepatobiliary images, whereas in eight patients (16%), equilibrated uptake was seen. No increased uptake of the radioisotope by hepatic lesions was seen in 21 patients with localized liver diseases other than hepatoma. Moreover, in 18 patients with diffuse liver diseases, no focal accumulation of the radioisotope was seen in delayed 99mTc-PMT images. In addition, of 28 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom the serum alpha-fetoprotein level showed little or no increase, 12 showed increased uptake of 99mTc-PMT by the tumor. In assessing delayed 99mTc-PMT images, however, it was necessary to consider following complications: accumulation of tracer in obstructed and dilated biliary trees; retention of radioactivity in nonneoplastic liver tissues; difficulties in evaluating 99mTc-PMT uptake by small hepatic tumors; overlapping of radioactivity in the gut and gallbladder in delayed 99mTc-PMT images of tumors. This study indicates that delayed 99mTc-PMT images can be useful in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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keywords = radioactivity
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8/15. Imaging of the hepatocellular carcinoma using dynamic positron emission tomography with nitrogen-13 ammonia.

    Dynamic PET using [13N]ammonia was performed in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatoma). All the tumors started to show remarkable accumulation of radioactivity from a very early period (within 150 sec after the radionuclide injection), whereas the radionuclide was more gradually accumulated in the liver. Central necroses of the tumors were visualized as low radioactivity areas. Daughter nodules of less than 2 cm were also visualized. This dynamic PET study is a valuable technique for the detection of the hepatoma.
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keywords = radioactivity
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9/15. Concentration of 99mTc-Sn-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan, a biliary agent, in distant metastases of hepatomas.

    During the last 2 years, eight patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were suspected of having distant metastases have been studied to determine whether a new biliary agent, 99mTc-Sn-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT), is taken up by extrahepatic tumors. In all eight patients, scintigrams showed a clearly increased uptake of 99mTc-PMT radioactivity by the extrahepatic tumors. In contrast, an increased uptake by the tumors of gallium citrate Ga 67 was only detected in four of the seven patients examined. The results obtained in this study suggest that 99mTc-PMT is useful both for characterizing the nature of extrahepatic tumors in patients with hepatoma and for detecting the metastases.
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keywords = radioactivity
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10/15. Evaluation of intrahepatic I-131 ethiodol on a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Therapeutic feasibility study.

    This study assesses the therapeutic efficacy of radiolabeled iodized oil on a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An iodized oil, such as Lipiodol or Ethiodol (Savage laboratories, Melville, NY), was retained selectively in the tumor vessels of large tumors as well as in the daughter tumors of HCC for long periods of time following intra-arterial injection into the hepatic artery proper. A small fraction of the stable iodine (1 pg of I-127) of the 37% iodine by weight in Ethiodol was replaced by the I-131 with 100% efficiency. A patient with HCC was injected with I-131 Ethiodol into the hepatic artery. Sequential imaging of organs such as the liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid over an eight-day period demonstrated a high tumor-to-normal-liver ratio and a negligible amount of radioactivity in these organs. These findings indicate that I-131 Ethiodol, or Ethiodol labeled with other pure beta emitters, such as Y-90 or P-32, will be effective delivering a high internal radiation dose to HCC with a small radiation effect to normal tissues. To evaluate its potential as a radiotherapeutic agent for HCC, the kinetics, biodistribution, determination of absolute activity in the tumor following intra-arterial injection of I-131 Ethiodol will be studied in the future. At the same time, an effort will be made to label Ethiodol with Y-90 and P-32.
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