Cases reported "Liver Neoplasms"

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1/46. Durable clinical and pathologic response of hepatocellular carcinoma to systemic and hepatic arterial administration of platinol, recombinant interferon alpha 2B, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil: a communication.

    The case described here illustrates the antitumor activity of a four-drug systemic combination chemobiotherapy with platinol, recombinant interferon alpha 2b, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (PIAF) in a patient with diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma involving the liver and lungs.
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2/46. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor.

    A primary hepatic carcinoid tumor arising in a 49-year-old woman is reported. The patient was admitted with multiple hepatic tumors and treated by a left lobectomy and cholecystectomy. Cut sections of the specimen revealed a solid and necrotic mass, measuring 10 x 12 x 13 cm, with multiple small satellite nodules. Histologically, the tumor cells had small oval-shaped nuclei and presented with a trabecular arrangement and rosette-like formation. Both Grimelius and Fontana-Mason stainings were positive. The tumor cells were positive for chromogranin a and negative for other antigens. Ultrastructural studies of the tumor cells revealed duct-like formation with microvilli and a cluster of dense small immature neurosecretory granules in the cytoplasm. These findings were consistent with those of carcinoid tumors. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with repeated transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for any remnant tumors. However, she died of the disease 5 years after the initial surgery. The autopsy findings suggested the primary site to be the liver.
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3/46. Sarcomatoid hepatocellular-carcinoma showing rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in the adult cirrhotic liver.

    An unusual case of a massive liver tumour composed of rhabdomyosarcoma with a small focus of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 52-year-old man is presented. He had hepatitis b virus (HBV) surface antigen in his serum. Macroscopically, a large tumour with satellite nodules occupied the right lobe of the cirrhotic liver. Microscopically, the tumours were composed of small and short spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells, mixed with desmin-positive round rhabdomyoblasts and elongated striated muscle cells, strongly suggestive of rhabdomyosarcoma of the liver. Elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum led us to examine the liver tumour closely in multiple sections, which disclosed a hepatocellular carcinoma component measuring 2 cm in diameter within the massive tumour. Immunohistochemically, the hepatocellular carcinoma cells were alpha-fetoprotein positive. There was neither a tumour capsule, nor distinct demarcation, and cytokeratin-positive clusters of undifferentiated cells were intermingled with the hepatocellular carcinoma and rhabdomyosarcoma at the border. The invading tumour outside the liver and metastatic tumours were pure rhabdomyosarcomas. It is suggested that the present case should be diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma transformed from hepatocellular carcinoma.
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4/46. dna mismatch repair deficiency in curatively resected sextuple primary cancers in different organs: a molecular case report.

    A male patient synchronously or metachronously underwent six curative resections after diagnoses of cancers in the rectum, urinary bladder, stomach, colon, liver and lung. Five cancers, excluding early colon cancer, were analyzed for instability in seven microsatellite markers and in transforming growth factor beta type II receptor, insulin-like growth factor ii receptor and BAX. All analyzed cancers had replication errors and instability in at least one target gene. These results suggest that abnormal dna mismatch repair system plays a major role in the occurrence of multiple primary cancers in this case.
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5/46. A long-term survivor undergoing extensive microwave coagulation for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Surgery for advanced hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) has not been standardized. We report on a long-term tumor-free survivor who underwent extensive microwave coagulation therapy (MCT) for multiple bilobar HCCs. A 61 year-old woman was diagnosed to have bilobar HCCs, including a large tumor, 9 cm in diameter, and 4 small satellite nodules, associated with chronic hepatitis B. The patient had received repeated chemoembolizations using iodized oil, but the increased alpha-fetoprotein level did not fall to normal. The main tumor was unresectable because the tumor involved the caval vein and hepatic veins. The patient underwent extensive MCT with a total of 134 electrode insertions. The paracaval portion of the main tumor was meticulously coagulated under sonographic guidance to avoid vascular injury. The post-operative course was uneventful. Post-operative computed tomography (CT) showed complete necrosis of all tumors. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence for 4 years after MCT. This case proves that extensive MCT can provide a chance of cure in selected patients with multiple bilobar HCCs and centrally located HCCs near the caval vein.
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6/46. Donor origin of neuroendocrine carcinoma in 2 transplant patients determined by molecular cytogenetics.

    Organ transplant recipients have an increased tumor incidence owing to their immunocompromised state. The origin of such tumors, whether donor or recipient, will have a clinical impact on decision-making concerning immunosuppressive therapy, retransplantation, and for recipients of other organs from the same donors. We report molecular cytogenetic determination of donor origin in 2 cases of small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma developing in sex-mismatched transplant recipients (kidney and liver). fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed on liver core needle biopsy material from the liver transplant patient and on liver fine needle aspiration cytopreparations from the kidney transplant patient. The results for the liver transplant patient were confirmed with microsatellite allelic analysis and with comparative genomic hybridization. In both cases, FISH showed the presence of only X chromosomes within the tumor cells, indicating the donor origin of the neoplasms. FISH is an excellent method to determine neoplastic origin in sex-mismatched transplant patients. HUM PATHOL 31:1425-1429.
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7/46. Hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma mimicking hydatid cyst. Report of a case.

    We report on a case of hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma in a 44-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with upper abdominal discomfort. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) showed a cystic mass resembling hydatid cyst. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) demonstrated communication with the left hepatic duct. At surgery, a cystic mass with communication to the left hepatic duct was found and resected en bloc with a margin of normal liver tissue. Histological examination showed a hepatobiliary cystadenoma with mesenchymal stroma.
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8/46. Biliary cystadenocarcinoma with superficial spread to the extrahepatic bile duct.

    We report a case of biliary cystadenocarcinoma of the liver with superficial spread to the extrahepatic bile duct. Preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed communication between a 4.5-cm cyst in segment 4 of the liver and the bile duct. From the findings obtained by peroral cholangioscopy and intraoperative cholangioscopy, the granular mucosa in the bile duct was diagnosed as superficially spreading cancer. The right posterior segmental bile duct and the right anterior segmental bile duct were resected at the point where the spread of cancer was no longer traceable and left lobectomy plus caudate lobectomy was carried out. This achieved radical resection, leaving the resected margin of the bile duct free from cancer. Histopathologically, well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma was found on the inner surface of the cyst, and the cancer had superficially spread from the cyst to the extrahepatic bile duct via the 2.5-mm diameter communication between the cyst and bile duct. The cancer was limited only to the mucosal layer all over the lesion. When performing radical surgery for biliary cystadenocarcinoma, it is recommended that cholangioscopy be performed to examine whether the cancer has superficial spread to the extrahepatic bile duct or not. bile duct resection should be carried out, depending on the extent of the superficial spread, so that the resected margin of the bile duct is free from cancer.
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9/46. Asymptomatic arterio-biliary fistula after transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors.

    Arterio-biliary fistula is a rare clinical condition resulting from various causes such as iatrogenic injury and ischemic change of the bile duct. Serious clinical symptoms occur due to the shunting of high-pressure blood from the hepatic artery into the bile duct. Here we report a case of arterio-biliary fistula demonstrated by angiographic examinations. The communication appeared after repeat transarterial chemoembolization of metastatic liver tumors. The interesting point of this case was that the patient did not have any obvious clinical symptoms related to the fistula. The mechanisms responsible for this rare manifestation are discussed.
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10/46. Three-dimensional organization of the hepatic microvasculature in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant systemic fibrovascular dysplasia. Although hepatic vascular shunts are often observed in HHT, the responsible pathological mechanism is unknown. This issue was addressed by performing a 3-dimensional reconstruction study of the hepatic microvasculature of an HHT-involved liver in a 79-year-old woman. Clinical observation revealed high-output congestive heart failure and hepatic encephalopathy due to arteriovenous and portovenous shunts, respectively. Angiography revealed tortuous dilation of hepatic arterial branches and intrahepatic arteriovenous shunts. The 3-dimensional analysis of the autopsy liver revealed focal sinusoidal ectasia, arteriovenous shunts through abnormal direct communications between arterioles and ectatic sinusoids, and portovenous shunts due to frequent and large communications between portal veins and ectatic sinusoids. Type 1 HHT was suggested by the lack of endoglin immunoreactivity in the liver. The 3-dimensional reconstruction study of hepatic microvasculature was successful in identifying the pathological changes responsible for the intrahepatic shunts in HHT.
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