Cases reported "Lung Abscess"

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1/46. Lemierre's syndrome.

    Postanginal sepsis, or Lemierre's syndrome, is rare but with life-threatening potential involving mainly infants and adolescents. The morbidity or mortality is caused mainly by lack of knowledge of the syndrome. The 18-year-old boy described here developed a jugular thrombosis 7 days after an angina. fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated from the culture of the excised jugular vein. Secondary embolism involved the lungs, associated with an iliac osteomyelitis and sacroiliitis. Computed tomography was used for diagnosis and follow-up.
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2/46. Multilobar consolidation with abscess formation caused by legionella pneumophila: an unusual chest radiographic presentation.

    A 52-year-old male had fever, pleuritic chest pain, cough with purulent sputum and hemoptysis for 4 days. The patient had underlying alcoholic cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis of the liver, chronic obstructive lung disease and underwent corticosteroids therapy. Chest radiograph showed round opacities bilaterally. legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 was identified by direct fluorescent antibody staining and culture from the sputum. Despite intravenous erythromycin and rifampin therapy, he died on the 7th hospital day. The autopsy showed bilateral pulmonary consolidation with abscess formation. legionnaires' disease should be included in the differential diagnosis if an immunosuppressed patient presents with multilobar opacities on chest radiograph. Specific tests for legionnaires' disease should be performed.
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3/46. A case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura refractory to plasma exchange.

    We experienced a case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) finally relieved after 74 sessions of plasma exchange (PE). The patient was a 56-year-old male. In August 1999, he was examined in emergency because of brown urine and a lowered level of consciousness. As TTP was suspected according to the laboratory findings of abnormally high lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin, decreased platelet counts, and numerous fragmented erythrocytes, he was admitted to the ICU of our hospital. Immediately after admission, PE was started consecutively. Upon concomitant use of antiplatelet drugs and prostacyclin, the level of platelet counts recovered to 100,000/microl once, but decreased again. Thus, in addition to the PE, prednisolone and vincristine were administrated, which elevated the level of platelet counts to 200,000 to 300,000/microl. Since the erythrocyte fragmentation was noted frequently, PE was continued twice a week. From the 60th day of admission onward, however, his body temperature rose above 40 degrees C with a rapid increase of c-reactive protein. A blood culture detected methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which derived from a left lung abscess. During the course of anti-MRSA treatment, he presented acute renal failure and acute hepatic dysfunction, but survived because of the combined therapy. He was discharged on the 180th day of admission. These results suggest that a combined therapy of steroid and vincristine is effective to treat TTP refractory to PE, but careful attention should be paid to the complications caused by immunosuppression.
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4/46. Legionella micdadei lung abscess in a patient with hiv-associated nephropathy.

    A patient with end-stage renal disease due to human immunodeficiency-associated nephropathy developed fever, cough and chest pain over a week's duration. He was diagnosed with lung abscess and started on antibiotic coverage. He underwent bronchoscopy because of progression of his illness and persistent fever and bronchoalveolar lavage culture isolated Legionella micdadei. In spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy, the patient remained febrile for 10 days, necessitating chest tube drainage. After a 6-week course of antibiotics and drainage, the patient made an uneventful recovery. Infections due to L. micdadei may be hard to diagnose because of difficulties in isolating this bacteria.
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5/46. rhodococcus equi infection in transplant recipients: a case of mistaken identity and review of the literature.

    The incidence of rhodococcus equi infection in solid-organ transplant recipients continues to rise throughout the world. Unfortunately, this opportunistic pathogen is still underestimated and potentially disregarded by physicians and microbiology laboratories due to its morphology on Gram staining. Pulmonary involvement is the most common finding in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of a 63-year-old heart-transplant recipient who presented with increasing fatigue and nonproductive cough for 3 weeks. After full evaluation, a lung abscess was demonstrated by thoracic computerized tomography (CT). blood and sputum cultures were remarkable for heavy "diphtheroids." Although the Gram-stain result was initially interpreted as a contaminant, a clinical suspicion for Rhodococcus assisted in further investigation. Broncheoalveolar lavage and CT-guided biopsy of the lung abscess revealed heavy growth of diphtheroids. However, further evaluation by a reference laboratory demonstrated mycolic acid staining consistent with R. equi. Surgical drainage and prolonged antibiotic therapy resulted in complete remission of the pneumonia and abscess. This represents the fourth reported case of R. equi infection in a heart transplant recipient. It is imperative that all physicians and laboratory staff consider R. equi when an immunocompromised patient has any type of pneumonia, especially with abscess formation.
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6/46. lung abscess (6 cm) of unexplained origin in a 36-year-old woman.

    A 36-year-old woman developed a lung abscess following an episode of influenza. Repeated blood cultures were negative. In necrotic material obtained by bronchoscopy no pathogenic micro-organisms were found. Penicillin-clavulanate, cefodizim and metronidazole were without success. The combination therapy with imipenem-cilastatin together with clindamycin improved clinical symptoms, normalized pathological laboratory parameters and completely resolved the lung cavity.
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7/46. Dactylaria infection of a human being: pulmonary disease in a heart transplant recipient.

    We describe a case of pulmonary abscess caused by Dactylaria constricta in a heart transplant recipient. A 30-year-old man with a 1-month history of fever and cough was found by computed tomographic scan to have a cavitary lesion in the lingular segment in the upper lobe of his left lung. culture of a needle biopsy specimen yielded a pure culture of D. constricta. The patient was successfully treated with systemic amphotericin b therapy, which resulted in resolution of the clinical symptoms and of the cavitary lesion.
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8/46. Legionella micdadei infection presenting as severe secretory diarrhea and a solitary pulmonary mass.

    Sixty percent of infections with non-pneumophila species of Legionella are caused by Legionella micdadei. Although diarrhea is a common symptom of legionellosis, including that due to L. micdadei infection, severe, life-threatening diarrhea is rare. We describe a patient with profound secretory diarrhea (secretion rate, up to 8 L/day) that was secondary to culture-proven L. micdadei pneumonia. In addition, a 3-cm pulmonary nodule was detected, which completely resolved after proper treatment for Legionella infection. Resolving pulmonary nodules have been previously reported in association with treatment of L. micdadei infections.
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9/46. The value of a CT-guided fine needle aspirate in infants with lung abscess.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the range of pathogens isolated from a lung abscess in infants less than one year of age. To assess the role of direct culture from the abscess. methods: The two index cases were managed in 2002. An institution-based review was conducted of all infants up to one year of age diagnosed with a lung abscess between 1989 and 2002. Data sources were hospital's disease index and Neonatal intensive care Unit Audit database using ICD9 and ICD10 diagnostic codes for 'lung abscess'. RESULTS: Five infants, under the age of one year, were treated for a lung abscess. In the one case where the abscess was left-sided it was associated with a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung. Pathogens were isolated following direct culture of the abscess in four cases. In three cases a single pathogen was isolated: pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and haemophilus influenzae. In one case a mixture of escherichia coli, streptococcus milleri and an anaerobe, propionibacteria, were cultured. Antibiotic therapy was directed at the identified pathogen(s) in all four cases. There was no mortality or recurrence. CONCLUSION: Predisposing factors for a lung abscess in infancy include prematurity, assisted ventilation, congenital lung anomaly and aspiration. Given the range of potential pathogens, direct culture by CT-guided fine needle aspiration is recommended to direct appropriate intravenous medical therapy provided the abscess is located peripherally.
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10/46. Pulmonary abscess due to leflunomide use in rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    A 43-year-old woman had rheumatoid arthritis (RA) for 5 years and complained of fever, arthralgia/myalgia, and night sweating for a month. She had been receiving only leflunomide (20 mg/day) for 5 months. On admission, there was no evidence of active arthritis or vasculitic lesion. Laboratory evaluation showed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 145 mm/h and c-reactive protein of 160 mg/dl. All cultures were negative. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) revealed a pulmonary abscess. Staphylococcus aureus multiplied in the culture of a purulent sample obtained from the abscess under ultrasonography. The leflunomide was stopped, and sultamicillin (IV 4x2 g/day) was started for a further 6 weeks. Four weeks later, the patient had completely recovered and CT showed significant improvement of the pulmonary abscess. Ten milligrams/day of prednisolone and 7.5 mg/week of methotrexate were started for RA treatment. The patient has been under control for 5 months without any further abscess or RA activation.
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