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1/34. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) deficiency in generalized Epstein-Barr virus infection with interstitial lymphoid and granulomatous pneumonia, focal cerebral lesions, and genital ulcers: remission following IFN-gamma substitution therapy.

    A 26-year-old previously healthy woman developed granulomatous pneumonitis, encephalitis, and genital ulceration during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV dna was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of serum, lung tissue, and genital ulcer specimens. serology verified primary EBV infection. The patient lacked lymphocytes cytotoxic to autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. No spontaneous or in vitro EBV-induced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production was evident in peripheral blood. The cells had normal IFN-gamma production when stimulated with staphylococcus aureus exotoxin A. In the bone marrow and peripheral blood, the number of large granular CD56 lymphocytes (natural killer cells) increased 39%-55%, but no CD4 or CD8 cell lymphocytosis was initially found. A partial clinical response was achieved with treatment with acyclovir, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma-globulin. Because of persistent granulomatous central nervous system and lung involvement, subcutaneous IFN-gamma therapy was started but was discontinued after 3 months because of development of fever, pancytopenia, and hepatitis. This therapy initiated a complete clinical recovery, which occurred parallel to development of EBV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes and normalization of natural killer cell lymphocytosis. These findings provide evidence for an EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorder due to a T lymphocyte dysfunction associated with a selective lack of IFN-gamma synthesis.
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2/34. Differential uptake of TI-201 by small-cell lung cancer in a patient with pneumoconiosis-related pulmonary nodules.

    A 68-year-old man with pneumoconiosis was thought to have small-cell lung cancer based on the results of a biopsy of a bone tumor. Three pulmonary nodules were observed on a chest radiograph. Compared with a chest radiograph taken 4 months earlier, one of the nodules had grown. It was difficult to differentiate this nodule from pneumoconiosis-related benign pulmonary nodules from the appearance on the chest radiograph and CT. Ga-67 scintigraphy and TI-201 lung SPECT were performed to characterize these nodules. TI-201 SPECT showed differential high uptake in the enlarged nodule, whereas Ga-67 scintigraphy showed equally intense uptake in all these nodules. Transbronchial biopsy of the nodule that showed high TI-201 uptake revealed cancer cell nests against a background of interstitial fibrosis. The pathologic diagnosis was small-cell lung cancer that had developed in lung scar tissue. This case suggests the utility of TI-201 in scintigraphic assessments of pneumoconiosis-related pulmonary nodules when lung cancer is suspected.
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3/34. An unusual case of intrapulmonary granulocytic sarcoma presenting as interstitial pneumonitis following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukaemia and responding to donor lymphocyte infusion.

    We report a 45-year-old female with AML who underwent a T cell-depleted sibling allograft and relapsed a year later with extramedullary disease involving the lung parenchyma and presenting with the clinical and radiological features of interstitial pneumonitis. The patient was treated with donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) resulting in complete resolution of the radiological signs. The unusual presentation and the management options are discussed.
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4/34. Human herpesvirus type 8 in hiv-infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    OBJECTIVES: The new human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) has been detected in all types of Kaposi's sarcomas, as well as in body-cavity lymphomas and Castleman's disease. Recently, HHV-8 has also been associated with encephalitis in hiv-positive and hiv-negative patients. Interstitial pneumonitis, combined with detection of HHV-8 in non hiv-infected patients, indicates a pathogenetic role of HHV-8 in unexplained lung diseases. We have studied two hiv-infected patients, with otherwise unexplained interstitial pneumonitis for the presence of HHV-8. methods: Lung biopsies of both patients were investigated for HHV-8 sequences. A nested PCR method was used for amplification of HHV-8 dna fragments, and the nature of the amplification products was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. In addition, we used an in situ hybridization technique and immunohistochemical staining for detection of HHV-8 infected cells. RESULTS: Amplification of HHV-8 dna fragments was seen with template dna from lung biopsies of both cases and the appropriate positive controls, but not with negative controls. in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining demonstrated HHV-8 infected lymphoid cells and alveolar macrophages in both patients as well. CONCLUSIONS: HHV-8 was found in hiv-infected patients with otherwise unexplained interstitial pneumonitis, but the pathogenic role of HHV-8 in patients with interstitial pneumonia remains unclear.
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5/34. cytomegalovirus as a cause of very late interstitial pneumonia after bone marrow transplantation.

    cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic transplant. Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is the most common manifestation of CMV in BMT patients, with a 30-48% mortality rate despite adequate treatment. Most CMV infection occurs in the first 100 days. However, prolonged ganciclovir (GCV) prophylaxis has favored the occurrence of late CMV IP, probably by inhibition of the development of CMV-specific T cell lymphocyte responses. We report the case of a patient treated with an allogeneic BMT who received pre-emptive GCV until day 100 because of CMV-positive antigenemia. He developed a CMV IP on day 811 post BMT, which responded to treatment. We intend to alert clinicians that even at long-term (>1 year) post-BMT, CMV is a possible cause of IP in high-risk patients.
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6/34. Pulmonary storage with emphysema as a sign of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease (second complementation group). Report of a case.

    A case is described of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease presenting an infantile pneumopathic phenotype known to occur in this recently established, second, minor complementation group of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. However, the pulmonary involvement was unique, being dominated, in addition to the usual storage macrophage infiltration of the alveolar and septal compartments, by irregular emphysema attributed to storage cell migration into the bronchiolar lumen. The latter modified considerably the X-ray findings and hindered the initial clinical diagnosis. Otherwise, the storage phenotype, including the range of stored lipids, storage distribution, and cell and organ pathology, was found to be identical to that in the whole Niemann-Pick type C disease group dominated by NPC1. The biochemical findings (cholesterol esterification level) corresponded to the classical biochemical phenotype. emphysema should thus be considered as a variant of the pulmonary NPC2 storage process, governed most probably by an epigenetic mechanism responsible for storage macrophage migration into the bronchiolar compartment.
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keywords = macrophage
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7/34. Development of progressive pulmonary interstitial and intra-alveolar cholesterol granulomas (PICG) associated with therapy-resistant chronic systemic juvenile arthritis (CJA).

    A girl aged 5 years with therapy-resistant chronic systemic juvenile arthritis (CJA) developed progressive fibrosing lung disease. histology of an open lung biopsy revealed pulmonary interstitial and intra-alveolar cholesterol granulomas (PICG). Since treatment with steroids and immunosuppressive drugs did not prevent progression of lung fibrosis, an experimental treatment with a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) antagonist etanercept was started. Although development of chronic changes in the lung parenchyma could not be prevented, this treatment brought considerable relief and markedly improved the child's physical capacity. By ruling out other causes for development of PICG, we concluded that the primary disease had caused the development of cholesterol granulomata by macrophage activation. We suggest, therefore, that a trial with etanercept in children with otherwise therapy-resistant CJA should be considered, especially if pulmonary complications have developed.
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keywords = macrophage
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8/34. X-linked dyskeratosis congenita: restrictive pulmonary disease and a novel mutation.

    dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited multisystem disorder characterised by lesions of the skin and appendages. Bone marrow failure occurs in 80% of patients. The gene for the X-linked form of DC has been identified on Xq28 and designated as DKC1. Pulmonary manifestations have rarely been reported. It is not known whether there is a respiratory disease peculiar to these patients and, if so, whether it is associated with a specific genetic mutation. A 40 year old Egyptian man with pulmonary disease and his symptom free 35 year old brother both presented with mucocutaneous lesions characteristic of DC. In the older brother chest imaging revealed generalised intralobular interstitial thickening and honeycombing. Pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive pattern. Open lung biopsy specimens of lung tissue showed various degrees of fibrosis consistent with usual interstitial pneumonia of chronic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The younger brother was free of pulmonary lesions. Both had a novel missense mutation 5C-->T in exon 1 of the DKC1 gene. It is concluded that pulmonary disease in DC may be underestimated, possibly because most patients die at an early age of bone marrow failure. No relationship between genotype and phenotype could be established in the patients studied. The genetic diagnosis of DC is now available, which may enable it to be diagnosed in patients with restrictive pulmonary disease and minimal cutaneous signs.
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9/34. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis: a new variant of neonatal interstitial lung disease.

    We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in lung biopsies from seven infants with atypical neonatal lung disease. All seven infants presented with tachypnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse interstitial infiltrates with overinflated lungs on chest radiographs in the first month of life. Lung biopsies from all cases showed similar pathology, with expansion of the interstitium by spindle-shaped cells containing periodic acid-Schiff positive diastase labile material consistent with glycogen. Immunohistochemical staining showed these cells to be vimentin positive but negative for leucocyte common antigen, lysozyme, and other macrophage markers. Electron microscopy revealed primitive interstitial mesenchymal cells with few cytoplasmic organelles and abundant monoparticulate glycogen. Minimal or no glycogen was seen in the alveolar lining cells. Five cases were treated with pulse corticosteroids; hydroxychloroquine was added in one case. Six of seven infants have shown a favorable clinical outcome. One infant died from complications of extreme prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Three cases that have been followed for at least 6 years have shown clinical resolution and radiographic improvement. We propose the term "pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis" of the neonate for this new entity to be differentiated from other forms of interstitial lung disease. Because abundant glycogen is not normally found in pulmonary interstitial cells, we postulate an abnormality in lung cytodifferentiation involving interstitial mesenchymal cells.
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keywords = macrophage
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10/34. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2 /-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world.
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ranking = 1300.409995185
keywords = macrophage
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