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1/29. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a welder exposed to metal fumes.

    A 43-year-old man began having malaise, chills, and fever 12 hours after cutting a galvanized steel grating with an acetylene torch at work. Over the next 72 hours, his symptoms persisted and became worse with progressive shortness of breath. He was admitted to the hospital and begun on antibiotics and steroids. The next day his condition had deteriorated to the point that he had to be intubated. Chest x-ray film and computed tomography showed patchy and interstitial infiltration bilaterally, consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Open lung biopsy showed focal mild interstitial pneumonia. Multiple laboratory studies were negative for an infectious or an immune process. The patient remained on mechanical ventilation for 10 days and was discharged from the hospital 2 days after extubation. He continued to improve, with minimal symptoms and a return to normal activity levels several months after the incident with no continued treatment. Re-creation of his exposure was done under controlled circumstances, with air sampling revealing elevated air levels for cadmium and zinc and borderline levels of arsenic, manganese, lead, and iron.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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2/29. Nylon flock-associated interstitial lung disease.

    A work-related interstitial lung disease has been diagnosed in workers at five nylon flock facilities in three different states and a Canadian province. The National Institute for Occupational safety and health hosted a workshop at which consulting pulmonary pathologists reviewed lung tissue samples from all the cases for which lung biopsy material was available (15 of 20 cases known in January 1998). After independent review and scoring of these lung tissue specimens, the pathologists reached consensus that the histopathological findings revealed a characteristic lesion-a lymphocytic bronchiolitis and peribronchiolitis with lymphoid hyperplasia represented by lymphoid aggregates. The pathologists noted that the pathological findings were distinctive when compared with known lung conditions. The clinical presentation for the cases generally included cough, dyspnea, restrictive ventilatory defect with reduction in diffusing capacity, and interstitial markings on chest radiographs or high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Six of the cases improved after removal from workplace exposure without medical treatment. Six others, who had recovered with medical treatment and removal from the workplace, had relapses in both symptoms and objective findings after attempting to return to nylon flock work. With this and other evidence supporting the existence of chronic interstitial pneumonitis associated with nylon flock processing, workshop participants recommended surveillance for early identification of affected workers and their removal from further workplace exposure.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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3/29. Low dose cabergoline induced interstitial pneumonitis.

    Certain dopaminergic anti-Parkinson drugs (ergolines) have repeatedly been identified as a cause of pleuropulmonary disease with a focus on serosal cell damage. Recently, a pathogenetic link between ergolines and prior asbestos exposure was suggested, as regards the development of pleural pathology. This report describes a patient with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, who was on a multiple drug regimen including low dose cabergoline. The patient developed a febrile illness with widespread bilateral lung infiltrations nonresponsive to beta-lactam and macrolide antibiotics. bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy showed a "hypersensitivity-like" interstitial lung disease, which cleared almost completely within 2 months after simple drug withdrawal. Circumstantial evidence suggests a so far undescribed adverse lung reaction to cabergoline, devoid of the more usual pleural changes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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4/29. Irinotecan-associated pulmonary toxicity.

    We present the circumstances surrounding a 57-year-old Caucasian man with advanced colorectal cancer who developed relapsing interstitial lung disease following a single exposure to irinotecan (CPT-11). Progressive pulmonary insufficiency and death were reported in the initial Japanese studies, despite institution of empiric steroid therapy for a syndrome similar to that which our patient experienced. As a result, patients with compromised pulmonary function were generally excluded from US clinical trials. Notwithstanding this, cough and dyspnea were reported in approximately 20% of patients in the US studies. As the clinical indications for the use of this agent expand, we describe irinotecan-associated interstitial pneumonitis as a serious potential adverse effect. patients with pre-existing pulmonary disease may be at higher risk for this complication and clinicians should be alert to this possibility.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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5/29. Giant cell pneumonitis induced by cobalt.

    cobalt alone and in combination with tungsten carbide known as hard metal is capable of causing lung damage. This may vary from development of pulmonary oedema to asthma and fibrosing alveolitis. We report a case of giant cell interstitial pneumonitis caused by exposure to cobalt dust which was not identified as the etiological agent initially and hence led to progression of the disease. The patient subsequently improved following cessation of exposure and treatment with oral corticosteriods, thereby stressing the importance of occupational history in all cases of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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6/29. The potencial role of rare earths in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease: a case report of movie projectionist as investigated by neutron activation analysis.

    A 60-year-old male subject who worked as a movie projectionist and who was exposed for 12 years to rare earths (RE) containing dusts from cored arc light carbon electrodes was investigated. Chest X-ray films and pulmonary function tests showed an interstitial lung disease, emphysema and a severe obstructive impairment with marked decrease of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity. The histological examination of a transbronchial biopsy confirmed the diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis. neutron activation analysis (NAA) of the biopsy showed concentrations of cerium (Ce), lanthanum (La), neodimium (Nd), samarium (Sm), terbium (Tb) and ytterbium (Yb) which were high compared to the corresponding elements in the transbronchial biopsies of 5 unexposed subjects as a control group. thorium (Th) (which is generally present as an impurity of the RE compounds) was also determined in order to estimate the radiation dose in the lung of the worker. On the basis of the clinical observations, of the analytical results by neutron activation analysis of RE and of the presence of Th in the transbronchial biopsy, as well as of the differential diagnosis, which tended to exclude other occupational or non-occupational lung diseases, a relation between the observed interstitial lung fibrosis and occupational exposure to RE is highly probable.
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ranking = 214.3506168031
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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7/29. Rheumatoid syndrome associated with lung interstitial disorder in a dental technician exposed to ceramic silica dust. A case report and critical literature review.

    Exposure to silica minerals is associated with silicosis and autoimmune disorders, especially systemic scleroderma. Evidence of this association has been increasingly reported in the last decade. The aim of this paper is to discuss, on the basis of a literature review, the case of a 28-year-old female dental technician who suffered from episodes of weakness, arthralgia, pain, swelling and stiffness of the fingers, dyspnoea with cough, a positive Waaler-Rose reaction, increased rheumatoid factor and normal ESR. She was a non-smoker. A rheumatoid syndrome with lung interstitial disorder, associated with silica exposure from dental ceramic products, was diagnosed. The patient had the HLA-A2-A31, HLA-B51-B18 and HLA-DR3-DR11 haplotypes, some of which are associated with autoimmune disease susceptibility. A 6-month follow-up, with adequate protection and without treatment, showed disappearance of the symptomatology and negative tests for Waaler-Rose reaction and rheumatoid factor. Exposure to silica should, therefore, be sought in the history of any patient with autoimmune or lupus-like syndrome and pulmonary changes. Symptoms associated with silica dust exposure from dental ceramic products should be recognised as being due potentially to an occupational disease, and dental technicians should be protected as workers at risk.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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8/29. Hard metal interstitial lung disease: high-resolution computed tomography appearance.

    Hard metal interstitial lung disease (HM-ILD) is a rare form of interstitial lung disease caused by aerosolized particulates containing cobalt inhaled during the manufacture or grinding of hard metal. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearance of HM-ILD includes reticulation, traction bronchiectasis, and large peripheral cystic spaces in a mid and upper lung distribution. This appearance, along with a consistent occupational exposure, should specifically suggest the diagnosis of HM-ILD.
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ranking = 214.3506168031
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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9/29. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2 /-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world.
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ranking = 3
keywords = exposure
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10/29. polyethylene flock-associated interstitial lung disease in a Spanish female.

    This case study presents a female aged 54 yrs with a 12 months history of progressive pulmonary impairment after a 7-yr period of occupational exposure to rotary-cut polyethylene. An open lung biopsy revealed the histopathology of follicular bronchiolitis that is viewed as a stereotypical feature for flock worker's lung. It seems to be the first case of plastic flock-associated interstitial lung disease reported outside north america.
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ranking = 214.3506168031
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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