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1/146. Forced expiratory wheezes in a patient with dynamic expiratory narrowing of central airways and an oscillating pattern of the flow-volume curve.

    Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and main stem bronchi during forced expiration. Superimposed to the flow-volume curve was an oscillating pattern with a frequency that corresponded well with the wheeze generated during forced expiration. The oscillating pattern in the flow-volume curve and the collapse of the major airways supports the theory of wheezes generated by fluttering airways during forced expiration. Although FEW may be found also in healthy subjects, flow limitation is essential for the generation of FEW. The inclusion of a forced expiratory maneuver in the clinical examination might therefore be helpful in guiding the diagnosis towards airways obstruction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = airway, obstruction
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2/146. Lung volume reduction surgery combined with cardiac interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: Postoperative course and functional outcome were evaluated in patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or in combination with valve replacement (VR), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), placement of a stent, or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). methods: patients with severe bronchial obstruction and hyperinflation due to pulmonary emphysema were evaluated for lung volume reduction surgery. Cardiac disorders were screened by history and physical examination and assessed by coronary angiography. Nine patients were accepted for LVRS in combination with an intervention for coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, three patients with valve disease and severe emphysema were accepted for valve replacement (two aortic-, one mitral valve) only in combination with LVRS. Functional results over the first 6 months were analysed. RESULTS: Pulmonary function testing demonstrates a significant improvement in postoperative FEV1 in patients who underwent LVRS combined with an intervention for CAD. This was reflected in reduction of overinflation (residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC)), and improvement in the 12-min walking distance and dyspnea. Median hospital stay was 15 days (10-33). One patient in the CAD group died due to pulmonary edema on day 2 postoperatively. One of the three patients who underwent valve replacement and LVRS died on day 14 postoperatively following intestinal infarction. Both survivors improved in pulmonary function, dyspnea score and exercise capacity. Complications in all 12 patients included pneumothorax (n = 2), hematothorax (n = 1) and urosepsis (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Functional improvement after LVRS in patients with CAD is equal to patients without CAD. mortality in patients who underwent LVRS after PTCA or CABG was comparable to patients without CAD. LVRS enables valve replacement in selected patients with severe emphysema otherwise inoperable.
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ranking = 0.047205703277857
keywords = obstruction
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3/146. bronchiectasis: the 'other' obstructive lung disease.

    bronchiectasis belongs to the family of chronic obstructive lung diseases, even though it is much less common than asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. Clinical features of these entities overlap significantly. The triad of chronic cough, sputum production, and hemoptysis always should bring bronchiectasis to mind as a possible cause. Chronic airway inflammation leads to bronchial dilation and destruction, resulting in recurrent sputum overproduction and pneumonitis. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, any potential predisposing conditions should be aggressively sought. The relapsing nature of bronchiectasis can be controlled with antibiotics, chest physiotherapy, inhaled bronchodilators, proper hydration, and good nutrition. In rare circumstances, surgical resection or bilateral lung transplantation may be the only option available for improving quality of life. prognosis is generally good but varies with the underlying syndrome.
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ranking = 0.11909928709027
keywords = airway
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4/146. Outpatient oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A review of 13 years' experience and an evaluation of modes of therapy.

    Thirteen years' experience with home oxygen for patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are reviewed. Home oxygen is safe and relieves pulmonary hypertension and elevated RBC mass in some, but not all patients. Marked clinical improvement is the most important result of long-term home oxygen use, including reduced hospitalizations and return to gainful employment for a few patients. Chronic compensated carbon dioxide retention is well tolerated and adaptive in cases of severe chronic airflow obstruction. New oxygen concentrators are effective in correcting hypoxemia and may make home oxygen administration more convenient and less expensive.
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ranking = 0.047205703277857
keywords = obstruction
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5/146. Cardiovascular collapse associated with extreme iatrogenic PEEPi in patients with obstructive airways disease.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with positive alveolar pressure at end-expiration (intrinsic PEEP or PEEPi) caused by a prolonged expiratory time constant. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with large tidal volumes and high ventilatory frequencies may cause pulmonary hyperinflation, with increases in intrathoracic pressure and cardiopulmonary effects. We report two cases, one of fatal pulseless electrical activity, the other of life-threatening hypotension, both during vigorous manual PPV, in patients with severe COPD. This phenomenon has been well-recognized by intensivists but is reported poorly more widely.
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ranking = 0.47639714836107
keywords = airway
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6/146. Age-related changes in the epiglottis causing failure of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    At 65 years of age, a former coal miner, now 72-years-old, developed a progressive loss of concentration with daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances. work-up in pneumological and medical sleep centres resulted in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), borderline obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and, later, upper airway resistance syndrome. In addition, there was evidence of reduced efficiency of sleep. Neither the initial administration of theophylline nor the later use at night of hyperbaric respiration led to improvement in the patient's symptoms. Instead, the patient developed loud snoring, as well as the inability to sleep while in a lying position. At age 71 years, otorhinolaryngological examination resulted in findings of age-related changes in the epiglottis, that completely blocked the hypopharynx upon inspiration. polysomnography, which was possible only in a half-seated position, revealed reduction in deep sleep, with a maximum oxygen saturation of 77 per cent at an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 4.8. Partial resection of the epiglottis with laser surgery resulted in complete improvement of diurnal drowsiness and reduced stamina. Sleeping in a supine position again became possible. polysomnography revealed normalization of sleep architecture, but unchanged, low efficiency of sleep. This case underscores the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders.
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ranking = 0.59549643545134
keywords = airway
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7/146. Treatment of obstructive airway disease with a cysteine donor protein supplement: a case report.

    Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can occur in obstructive airways disease as a result of ongoing inflammation. glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in pulmonary antioxidant protection. As an alternative or complement to anti-inflammatory therapy, augmenting antioxidant protection could diminish the effects of inflammation. We describe a case of a patient who had obstructive lung disease responsive to corticosteroids, and low whole blood GSH levels. After 1 month of supplementation with a whey-based oral supplement designed to provide GSH precursors, whole blood GSH levels and pulmonary function increased significantly and dramatically. The potential for such supplementation in pulmonary inflammatory conditions deserves further study.
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ranking = 0.59549643545134
keywords = airway
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8/146. Permanent transfemoral pacemaker implantation is the technique of choice for patients in whom the superior vena cava is inaccessible.

    We describe transfemoral pacemaker implantation in three patients in whom pacing via the superior vena cava was not possible or suboptimal. The first was an 88-year-old man with superior vena cava obstruction presenting with fractured epicardial pacing leads. Recent pneumonia increased the risks of a general anesthetic. The second patient was a 57-year-old man who was intolerant of a pectorally sited pacemaker because of the thinness of his anterior chest wall. The third patient was a 69-year-old woman who presented with an infected eroding pectorally sited pacemaker. Scarring secondary to a previous pacemaker infection rendered the contralateral pectoral site inaccessible. Since the subclavian route was inaccessible (case 1) or suboptimal (case 2 and 3), we implanted transvenous pacemakers via the femoral route, which was safe, and effective, during a 6-month follow-up period.
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ranking = 0.047205703277857
keywords = obstruction
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9/146. Successful use of high dose rate brachytherapy for non-malignant bronchial obstruction.

    High dose rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy is a palliative treatment for symptomatic airway obstruction by malignant tumours. We report a novel use of HDR brachytherapy for treating non-malignant bronchial obstruction. The patient had a metal stent placed in a reconstructed airway after a bronchial tear to ensure patency. granulation tissue formation in and around the stent caused symptomatic occlusion of the airway, necessitating multiple laser applications. A single treatment of HDR brachytherapy (1000 cGy) was delivered following laser therapy. The patient remains well 15 months after treatment with no evidence of recurrent granulation tissue formation on bronchoscopy. HDR brachytherapy is an effective treatment for non-malignant airway obstruction.
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ranking = 2.5891033836023
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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10/146. lidocaine inhalation for cough suppression.

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effectiveness of lidocaine in suppressing cough which is a logical extension of its established use in bronchoscopy. Nebulized lidocaine, preceded by standard nebulized albuterol inhalation driven by oxygen was given to suppress cough in a selected group of patients with intractable cough severe enough to disrupt daily life activities, especially sleep. patients included those with asthma, reactive airways disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In these selected patients, nebulized lidocaine was very effective in suppressing cough, and thus buying time for more definitive therapies to work. This observation merits further study and confirmation for the benefit of patients.(Am J Emerg Med 2001;19:206-207.
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ranking = 0.11909928709027
keywords = airway
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