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11/146. Unusual features of pulmonary sling.

    patients with an anomalously placed left pulmonary artery ("pulmonary sling") typically have signs and symptoms of respiratory obstruction in the neonatal period. Experience with four previously unreported patients confirmed this. Typical radiographic features include unilateral air trapping (usually on the right side), an abnormal position of the esophagus, and a soft tissue mass interposed between the trachea and esophagus. Less common findings include a normal esophageal position, left-side air trapping, and delayed egress of neonatal pulmonary fluid. Both typical and atypical features were seen; the more unusual aspects are emphasized.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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12/146. Tracheobronchial stent insertions in the management of major airway obstruction in a patient with Hunter syndrome (type-II mucopolysaccharidosis).

    We report a case of a 22-year-old male with Hunter syndrome who developed progressive major airway obstruction and was treated with insertion of plastic and metallic stents, with dramatic improvement in the patient's symptomatic and functional status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of endoluminal stents being used in the management of major airway obstruction in a patient with Hunter syndrome.
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ranking = 134.40386306189
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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13/146. Epidural anesthesia following thoracotomy in patients with chronic obstructive airway disease.

    Epidural analgesia for control of postoperative thoracotomy pain in patients with carcinoma of the lung and chronic obstructive airway disease is described. The rationale and procedure for its use are presented. Epidural analgesia used in 8 patients requiring pulmonary resection who had chronic obstructive airway disease resulted in an improved postoperative course and avoided use of narcotics or a respirator in 7 of the 8 patients.
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ranking = 15.137910737934
keywords = airway
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14/146. Non-invasive ventilation and palliation: experience in a district general hospital and a review.

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly being used in hospitals to treat respiratory failure. The use of NIV with palliative intent in a district general hospital is described and ten illustrative cases where NIV was used in an attempt to palliate symptoms or to 'buy time' are presented. The role of NIV in relieving symptoms in various conditions is reviewed and ethical aspects are considered. It is suggested that hospital palliative care teams will increasingly see patients treated by this technique as it becomes more widely used for exacerbations of chronic obstructive airways disease, for relief of breathlessness in the terminally ill and for buying time in patient management. Domiciliary teams will see increasing numbers of people with motor neurone disease and other conditions treated with NIV.
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ranking = 2.5229851229891
keywords = airway
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15/146. Upper airway malformation associated with partial trisomy 11q.

    11q trisomy is associated with a recognizable pattern of multiple malformations. review of the literature reveals the following recurrent themes common to complex and isolated 11q trisomy: mental retardation, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, a distinct pattern of facial features, congenital heart defects, and limb malformations. We report four patients with partial trisomy 11q, none of which arose from the common 11/22 translocation. Three of the four patients had the previously unreported finding of upper airway obstruction secondary to a malformed epiglottis. The critical region for this malformation appears to be 11q21-23.2.
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ranking = 32.492584335605
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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16/146. poisoning from henna dye and para-phenylenediamine mixtures in children in Khartoum.

    poisoning by a mixture of henna dye and para-phenylenediamine dyes led to the hospitalization of 31 Sudanese children between 1984 and 1989. There was a characteristic clinical presentation. All children presented with an acute and severe angioneurotic oedema and 15 of the cases required emergency tracheostomy for respiratory obstruction. Acute renal failure occurred in five children who recovered after peritoneal dialysis. mortality was high, all 13 deaths occurring within 24 hours of presentation. Hypotensive shock gave a poor prognosis. It is possible that similar cases may be occurring unrecognized where henna is traditionally used. A programme of public education and restriction of para-phenylenediamine is urgently required in The sudan and other affected nations. Ingestion was accidental in 12 children, deliberate in 10 and homicidal in three cases. Cutaneous absorption was likely in the remaining six.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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17/146. Urgent adenotonsillectomy for upper airway obstruction.

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy has been documented to cause chronic upper airway obstruction resulting in cardiopulmonary sequelae in children. It has been less recognized that long-term adenotonsillar hypertrophy may additionally cause acute, life-threatening airway obstruction. A review of 5000 adenotonsillectomies performed at 3 new york Medical College affiliated hospitals from 1982 to 1989 showed 6 pediatric patients with progressive upper airway obstruction severe enough to necessitate intubation in the emergency room or operating room, and subsequent urgent adenotonsillectomy after cardiorespiratory stabilization. patients were monitored in the ICU with pre- and postoperative blood gases. Observations of cyanosis, cor pulmonale, and use of accessory respiratory muscles were carefully recorded. This study illustrates that life-threatening upper airway obstruction may be due to chronic adenotonsillar enlargement and require treatment by urgent adenotonsillectomy.
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ranking = 179.20515074919
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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18/146. Acute and long term respiratory damage following inhalation of ammonia.

    A lifelong non-smoker who was the victim of a massive accidental exposure to anhydrous ammonia gas was followed up for 10 years. In the acute phase the patient presented with severe tracheobronchitis and respiratory failure, caused by very severe burns of the respiratory mucosa. After some improvement he was left with severe and fixed airways obstruction. Isotope studies of mucociliary clearance, computed tomography, and bronchography showed mild bronchiectasis. It is concluded that acute exposure to high concentrations of ammonia may lead to acute respiratory injury but also to long term impairment of respiratory function.
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ranking = 3.5229851229891
keywords = airway, obstruction
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19/146. diagnostic imaging of the chest: exemplification of a reasoned integration.

    Based on the discussion and integrated management of a case of chest radiology, the reasoned approach to the perceptive-interpretative analysis and the "reasoned" diagnostic integration is tentatively exemplified. The request of a chest X-ray from the emergency department concerned a 75-year old patient, heavy smoker and chronic alcoholic with reduced vesicular murmur, diffuse hissing sounds, basal rales, weight loss and lack of appetite. The finding of right apical nodular opacities was critically evaluated to establish its diagnostic relevance (contours, opacity, site, accessory signs). After broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy a second chest X-ray was substantially unchanged. For careful diagnostic assessment CT of the chest was performed and the definitive diagnosis of main airway obstruction, bronchiolitis and right nonspecific apical outcomes was established.
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ranking = 22.400643843649
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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20/146. Congenital bronchial atresia with regional emphysema associated with pectus excavatum.

    Two cases of congenital bronchial atresia with pectus excavatum are reported. Costosternal retraction during the efforts to overcome the airway obstruction due to encroachment on normal lung tissue by the hyperinflated segments may play a part in causing pectus excavatum.
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ranking = 22.400643843649
keywords = airway obstruction, airway, obstruction
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