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1/55. Profound hypoxemia during treatment of low cardiac output after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the multiple causes of hypoxemia to be considered following cardiopulmonary bypass and how therapy given to improve oxygen delivery may have contributed to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation to life-threatening levels. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 61 yr old man with severe mitral regurgitation and chronic obstructive lung disease underwent surgery for mitral valve repair. A pulmonary artery catheter with the capacity to measure cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) continuously was used. Two unsuccessful attempts were made to repair the valve which was finally replaced, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass of 317 min. dobutamine 5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 and sodium nitroprusside 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to increase cardiac output. Soon after, the SvO2 decreased progressively from 55 to 39%. The patient became cyanotic with a PaO2 of 39 mmHg. sodium nitroprusside was stopped and amrinone 100 mg bolus followed by 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 was given in addition to adding PEEP to the ventilation. With these measures PaO2 could be maintained of safe levels but PEEP and high inspired oxygen concentrations were needed postoperatively until the trachea could be extubated on the third postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The profound hypoxemia in this case was likely due to a combination of intra- and extrapulmonary shunt, both augmented by sodium nitroprusside. The desaturation of mixed venous blood amplified the effect of these shunts in decreasing arterial oxygen saturation. The interaction of these factors are analyzed in this report.
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2/55. Forced expiratory wheezes in a patient with dynamic expiratory narrowing of central airways and an oscillating pattern of the flow-volume curve.

    Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and main stem bronchi during forced expiration. Superimposed to the flow-volume curve was an oscillating pattern with a frequency that corresponded well with the wheeze generated during forced expiration. The oscillating pattern in the flow-volume curve and the collapse of the major airways supports the theory of wheezes generated by fluttering airways during forced expiration. Although FEW may be found also in healthy subjects, flow limitation is essential for the generation of FEW. The inclusion of a forced expiratory maneuver in the clinical examination might therefore be helpful in guiding the diagnosis towards airways obstruction.
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ranking = 0.1544025918896
keywords = volume
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3/55. Lung volume reduction surgery combined with cardiac interventions.

    OBJECTIVE: Postoperative course and functional outcome were evaluated in patients who underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) or in combination with valve replacement (VR), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), placement of a stent, or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). methods: patients with severe bronchial obstruction and hyperinflation due to pulmonary emphysema were evaluated for lung volume reduction surgery. Cardiac disorders were screened by history and physical examination and assessed by coronary angiography. Nine patients were accepted for LVRS in combination with an intervention for coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, three patients with valve disease and severe emphysema were accepted for valve replacement (two aortic-, one mitral valve) only in combination with LVRS. Functional results over the first 6 months were analysed. RESULTS: Pulmonary function testing demonstrates a significant improvement in postoperative FEV1 in patients who underwent LVRS combined with an intervention for CAD. This was reflected in reduction of overinflation (residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC)), and improvement in the 12-min walking distance and dyspnea. Median hospital stay was 15 days (10-33). One patient in the CAD group died due to pulmonary edema on day 2 postoperatively. One of the three patients who underwent valve replacement and LVRS died on day 14 postoperatively following intestinal infarction. Both survivors improved in pulmonary function, dyspnea score and exercise capacity. Complications in all 12 patients included pneumothorax (n = 2), hematothorax (n = 1) and urosepsis (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Functional improvement after LVRS in patients with CAD is equal to patients without CAD. mortality in patients who underwent LVRS after PTCA or CABG was comparable to patients without CAD. LVRS enables valve replacement in selected patients with severe emphysema otherwise inoperable.
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ranking = 2.1801363572045
keywords = capacity, volume
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4/55. Recombinant human growth hormone for reconditioning of respiratory muscle after lung volume reduction surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) as a "rescue treatment" in an end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient after prolonged weaning failure. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Fifteen-bed intensive care unit in a university hospital. PATIENT: A 62-year-old man with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary emphysema after lung reduction surgery and prolonged weaning failure after long-term mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: After 42 days of unsuccessful weaning from the respirator, rHGH (27 IU/day, 0.3 IU/kg body weight/day) was administered for 20 days through a subcutaneous injection in addition to standard intensive care. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In addition to daily routine laboratory studies, the visceral proteins prealbumin, retinol-binding protein, and transferrin, and nitrogen balance were measured twice a week, as were the thyroid hormones triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma insulin levels, and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 binding proteins IGF-BP1 and IGF-BP3. IGF-1 was measured from day 1 to day 4 of rHGH administration. nutritional support was guided by indirect calorimetry. Additionally, weaning variables such as peak expiratory flow rate and expiratory tidal volume were measured noninvasively. T-piece weaning trials were carried out daily until respiratory muscle fatigue occurred. IGF-1 increased in response to rHGH stimulation, from 103 to 230 microg/mL, within 4 days. The carrier protein IGF-BP3 increased from 126 to 283 mg/L at the end of the study period, and the inhibiting IGF-BP1 decreased initially from 19 to 14 mg/L and then increased until the end of the study to 31 mg/L. nitrogen balance increased initially from 4.6 to 13.6 g/24 hrs and thereafter decreased until the end of rHGH treatment to 8.3 g/24 hrs. Resting energy expenditure increased from 1800 to 2300 kcal/24 hrs. peak expiratory flow rate increased from 0.69 to 0.88 L/sec. The expiratory tidal volume showed a slight increase during the study period during the daily decrease of pressure support on the ventilator setting. Respiratory muscular strength increased beginning 10 days after rHGH therapy was started. From this point, T-piece weaning trials could be prolonged almost daily. The patient was extubated successfully on postoperative day 75. CONCLUSIONS: This case report shows that after a prolonged catabolic state and long-term mechanical ventilation, administration of rHGH not only enhances the response of protein metabolism but improves respiratory muscular strength. Therefore, it may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in selected patients.
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ranking = 0.1544025918896
keywords = volume
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5/55. Cardiovascular collapse associated with extreme iatrogenic PEEPi in patients with obstructive airways disease.

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is commonly associated with positive alveolar pressure at end-expiration (intrinsic PEEP or PEEPi) caused by a prolonged expiratory time constant. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with large tidal volumes and high ventilatory frequencies may cause pulmonary hyperinflation, with increases in intrathoracic pressure and cardiopulmonary effects. We report two cases, one of fatal pulseless electrical activity, the other of life-threatening hypotension, both during vigorous manual PPV, in patients with severe COPD. This phenomenon has been well-recognized by intensivists but is reported poorly more widely.
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ranking = 0.025733765314934
keywords = volume
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6/55. Patient-ventilator interactions during volume-support ventilation: asynchrony and tidal volume instability--a report of three cases.

    During pressure-support ventilation, tidal volume (V(T)) can vary according to the level of the patient's respiratory effort and modifications of the thoraco-pulmonary mechanics. To keep V(T) as constant as possible, the Siemens Servo 300 ventilator proposes an original modification of pressure-support ventilation, called volume-support ventilation (VSV). VSV is a pressure-limited mode of ventilation that uses V(T) as a feedback control: the pressure support level is continuously adjusted to deliver a preset V(T). Thus, the ventilator adapts the inspiratory pressure level, breath by breath, to changes in the patient's inspiratory effort and the mechanical thoraco-pulmonary properties. The clinician sets V(T) and respiratory frequency, and the ventilator calculates a preset minute volume. It has been shown that ineffective respiratory efforts can occur during pressure-support ventilation.
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ranking = 0.28307141846427
keywords = volume
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7/55. Marked improvement of neuropsychological impairment in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after lung volume reduction surgery.

    This paper reports a case of a 71-year-old pulmonary emphysema patient with neuropsychological impairments that were markedly improved 6 months after he underwent lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). He also underwent pulmonary rehabilitation before and after surgery. He was suspected of having memory impairment and attention disorder when he was referred for rehabilitation. The neuropsychologic test showed a general cognitive impairment, attention disorder, and verbal memory impairment. magnetic resonance imaging showed moderate atrophy of the left hippocampal area, cortex, and lacunae infarction in the periventricular area. Interestingly, scores of the neuropsychologic test, as well as severity of dyspnea and lung function, remarkably improved 6 months after LVRS. These results suggested that the neuropsychological impairments in pulmonary emphysema patients can be improved after lung reduction surgery.
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ranking = 0.12866882657467
keywords = volume
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8/55. Pressure support noninvasive positive pressure ventilation treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    We assessed cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) patient response to full mask pressure support noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV). adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) in acute respiratory failure who clinically required endotracheal intubation (ETI) were studied. In addition to routine therapy consisting of oxygen, nitrates, and diuretics, patients were started on full mask NPPV using a Puritan Bennett 7200 ventilator delivering pressure support 10 cm H(2)O, PEEP 5 cm H(2)O, FiO(2) 100%. Pressure support was titrated to achieve tidal volumes of 5 to 7 mL/kg, and PEEP titrated to achieve oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) > 90%. Outcome measures included arterial blood gas (ABG), Borg dyspnea score, vital signs, and need for ETI. Twenty patients mean age 74.7 /- 14.3 years were entered on the study. Initial mean values on FiO(2) 100% by nonrebreather mask: pH 7.17 /-.13, paCO(2) 65.5 /- 19.4 mmHg, paO(2) 73.8 /- 27.3 mm Hg, SaO(2) 89.7 /- 10.0%, Borg score 8.1 /- 1.4, and respiratory rate(RR) 38 /- 6.3. At 60 minutes of NPPV, improvement was statistically significant: pH 7.28 (difference.11; 95% CI.04-.19), paCO(2) 45 (difference 20.5; 95% CI 8-33), Borg score 4.1 (difference 4.0; 95% CI 3-5), and RR 28.2 (difference 9.8; 95% CI 5-14). NPPV duration ranged from 30 minutes to 36 hours (median 2 hours, 45 minutes). Eighteen patients (90%) improved allowing cessation of NPPV. Two patients with concomitant severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) required ETI. There were no complications of NPPV. NPPV using full face mask and pressure support provided by a conventional volume ventilator is an effective treatment for CPE and may help prevent ETI.
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ranking = 0.051467530629867
keywords = volume
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9/55. Spirometric predictors for the exclusion of severe hypoxemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    BACKGROUND: Controversy has existed over the need for routine arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some authors recommend it in all patients with COPD, but others find it unnecessary if the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) is 50% of predicted or greater. OBJECTIVES: To clarify this controversy, and to investigate correlations between severe hypoxemia and multiple spirometric parameters in patients with COPD with FEV(1) 50% of predicted or greater. patients AND methods: In 103 consecutive patients with COPD with FEV(1) 50% of predicted or greater, and without any other cardiopulmonary disorder, the incidence of severe hypoxemia (partial pressure of arterial oxygen less than 60 mmHg) was established by ABG analysis. Positive and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs, respectively) for severe hypoxemia for multiple spirometric parameters (FEV(1), FEV(1)/forced vital capacity [FVC], peak expiratory flow [PEF], maximal midexpiratory flow rate [FEF(25-75)]) were evaluated in a stepwise manner. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (21%) were found to be severely hypoxemic. In the severely hypoxemic group, the mean values for FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC, PEF and FEF(25-75) were 59.0 /-8.19%, 53.6 /-11.3, 50.6 /-9.3 and 34.4 /-14.2% of predicted, respectively. The mean values for the same parameters in the other patients were 58.0 /-4.6%, 52.7 /-7.8, 51.5 /-7.5 and 39.1 /-7.7% of predicted, respectively. Comparing these parameters between the two groups, only the difference in FEF(25-75) was statistically significant (P<0.01). Valid PPVs and NPVs could not be established for any of the parameters at any level, except for the NPV for FEF(25-75) 50% of predicted or greater, which was 92%. This threshold value resulted in a false negative finding in less than 5% of the patients with hypoxemia. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that one in five patients with COPD with FEV(1) 50% of predicted or greater was severely hypoxemic. In such patients, hypoxemia may be excluded, and ABG analysis may not be needed when the FEF(25-75) is also 50% of predicted or greater. The FEV(1), FEV(1)/FVC and PEF parameters failed to predict or exclude severe hypoxemia.
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ranking = 269.34615937623
keywords = forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume, vital capacity, expiratory volume, capacity, volume
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10/55. Feeding management of children with severe cerebral palsy and eating impairment: an exploratory study.

    Some children with cerebral palsy and severe feeding impairment experience pulmonary complications from aspiration and gastroesophageal reflux. This exploratory study examined whether pulmonary function would improve following one year of intervention with optimal positioning for feeding, control of gastroesophageal reflux and use of food textures that would minimize aspiration from swallowing. Two children showed a 28% and 45% improvement, respectively, in functional residual capacity. One child experienced a 37% improvement in total respiratory resistance and a 284% improvement in respiratory compliance. All children gained sufficient weight to maintain their growth trajectories but only one who was changed from oral to tube feeding due to aspiration showed catch-up growth in length. One child showed pathological gastroesophageal reflux that was controlled medically throughout the study period. Although all children experienced pulmonary illnesses during the one year of follow up, control of aspiration permitted a clinically significant improvement of their pulmonary obstructive syndrome Further study is needed to more fully determine the effect of this treatment approach on pulmonary function.
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keywords = capacity
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