Cases reported "Lung Diseases"

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1/390. cytomegalovirus associated neonatal pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome: a causal relationship?

    lung injury caused by intrauterine inflammation has recently been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). This article supports this theory by suggesting a causative role of intrauterine cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection for the development of WMS. A male premature infant, born at 33 weeks of gestational age, developed chronic lung disease compatible with WMS and diagnostic evaluation was positive for CMV infection. High-resolution computed tomography scan and lung histology revealed typical features of WMS in association with signs of interstitial pneumonia. CMV was found in urine, breastmilk, bronchoalveolar lavage material and lung tissue from open lung biopsy. Follow-up after treatment with ganciclovir and steroids showed resolving lung disease at the age of 6, 10 and 16 months, with lung function signs of mild obstruction. Assuming that a chance coexistence of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and Wilson-Mikity syndrome is rather unlikely, it is possible that intrauterine cytomegalovirus infection caused a pattern of lung injury consistent with Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Further cases of Wilson-Mikity syndrome should be investigated as to a possible role of congenital infection.
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2/390. Negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Negative pressure pulmonary edema, a well-recognized phenomenon, is the formation of pulmonary edema following an acute upper airway obstruction (UAO). To our knowledge, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been reported previously as a complication of an UAO. We describe a case of negative pressure pulmonary hemorrhage, and we propose that its etiology is stress failure, the mechanical disruption of the alveolar-capillary membrane.
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keywords = alveolar
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3/390. mycobacterium tuberculosis infection masquerading as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after autologous stem cell transplant.

    We report a fatal case of pulmonary tuberculosis masquerading as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after autologous stem cell transplant.
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keywords = alveolar
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4/390. Diffuse recidivant alveolar hemorrhage in a patient with hepatitis c virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    A case of diffuse and recidivant alveolar hemorrhage is presented in a patient with hepatitis c virus-related type II mixed cryoglobulinemia with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient was a 48-year-old white woman who suffered several outbreaks of pulmonary hemorrhage refractory to treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, plasmapheresis and interferon-alpha. The patient also presented persistent increased titers of immune complexes and rheumatoid factor with no histological hepatic alterations. Some considerations about evolution and treatment are given according to the updated physiopathology of this disease.
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ranking = 5
keywords = alveolar
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5/390. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in the antiphospholipid syndrome: spectrum of disease and treatment.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) who develop diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. methods: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an occasionally reported manifestation of the APS. The diagnosis, however, may be overlooked or manifestations attributed to another disease process. Seven episodes in 5 patients with primary APS were identified and retrospectively reviewed for presenting symptoms and signs, laboratory findings, and response to treatment. RESULTS: The severity of the condition varies, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may be the initial manifestation of APS. patients may present with symptoms ranging from cough, dyspnea, and fever with or without hemoptysis, to symptoms of acute respiratory failure. Hypoxemia and anemia are usually present. Other causes need to be excluded. bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage with or without biopsy often aid in confirming the diagnosis. The pathologic abnormality appears to be microvascular thrombosis with or without capillaritis. Treatment with corticosteroids usually leads to marked improvement. CONCLUSION: patients with APS may present with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resulting in mild to life threatening symptoms. Prompt and thorough evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and treatment with corticosteroids usually leads to rapid improvement. The clinical setting will dictate whether other therapies such as immunosuppressive agents or intravenous immunoglobulin are required.
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ranking = 9
keywords = alveolar
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6/390. The decline and early fall of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage.

    Seven years' experience (1965-1972) with neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage at the University of colorado was reviewed. Pulmonary hemorrhage still occurs frequently as a preterminal event in hyaline membrane disease. As an isolated "pure" entity, however, pulmonary hemorrhage has shown a marked decline. This phenomenon is probably related to advances in neonatal intensive care. The radiographic pattern of "pure" pulmonary hemorrhage in the newborn is most commonly a diffuse alveolar infiltrate. Since pure hemorrhage is now an uncommon entity, the radiologist can reasonably suggest this diagnosis on rare occasions only, in the clinical setting of profound hypoxia.
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keywords = alveolar
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7/390. Sarcoid-like pulmonary disorder in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    We report two cases of hiv-infected patients who presented with diffuse interstitial micronodular lesions on chest X-ray after institution of protease inhibitor-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Granulomatous pulmonary disorder mimicking sarcoidosis was diagnosed on histopathological studies revealing noncaseating granuloma and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis showing an intense CD4( ) lymphocyte alveolitis. Causative agents such as infectious organisms and environmental compounds were excluded. The relationship between sarcoid-like reaction and immune reconstitution under HAART is discussed.
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keywords = alveolar
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8/390. Demonstration of communication between alveolus and interstitium in persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema: case report.

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE) is an uncommon complication of premature infants suffering from hyaline membrane disease who have been treated with mechanical ventilation. The presumed mechanism for the development of the disease is via a break in the bronchioalveolar system that allows air to escape into the interstitium. We report a case of a 9-week-old child who developed the localized form of the disease and underwent a lobectomy. Immunohistochemical stains helped to demonstrate the communication between the airway system and interstitium. This report strengthens the theory that the disease develops from airway rupture at the alveolar level.
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ranking = 2
keywords = alveolar
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9/390. High-resolution computed tomography of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease. It has been reported predominantly in turkey. We report a case of PAM with characteristic high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings. A 45-year-old Taiwanese woman had progressive difficulty in breathing for 7 years. Her chest radiographs showed diffuse high-density micronodules and reticular lines that obliterated the bronchovascular bundles and the margin of the heart and diaphragm. The micronodules were scattered throughout both lung fields with basal predominance. Examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed PAM. High-resolution CT showed a unique and characteristic calcified reticular pattern and thickening of the interlobular septa of the lung parenchyma, with predominant basal and peripheral lung distribution. Reticulonodular changes of the interlobular septa and intralobular interstitial lines associated with subpleural air cysts and paraseptal emphysema were evident. These high-resolution CT findings are pathognomonic for PAM. Thus, lung biopsy may be avoided in the presence of this characteristic finding.
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ranking = 5
keywords = alveolar
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10/390. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage in patients with serious group A streptococcal infections: report of two cases.

    Severe pulmonary hemorrhage was observed in two patients who died of serious group A streptococcal infections. These two patients initially presented with fever and sore throat. This was followed by sudden onset of septicemia caused by the bacteria and by the subsequent development of severe pulmonary hemorrhage. hemoptysis, cyanosis, and dyspnea were observed prior to death in both cases. This pulmonary lesion resulted in asphyxia and sudden death in one patient. Pathological examinations of the lung revealed severe intraalveolar hemorrhage, with no evidence of inflammation or necrosis of the pulmonary tissue. There was no evidence of aspiration of blood due to hemorrhage in the upper respiratory or alimentary tract. This visceral lesion appears to be an hitherto undescribed, novel clinicopathologic feature of patients with serious group A streptococcal infections.
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ranking = 1
keywords = alveolar
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