Cases reported "Lung Diseases"

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1/53. lymphomatoid granulomatosis following autologous stem cell transplantation.

    lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of uncertain etiology, with prominent pulmonary involvement. Recent studies indicate that LYG is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B cell LPD with large numbers of background reactive T lymphocytes (T cell-rich B cell lymphoma). Although the disease frequently, but not exclusively, occurs in various immunodeficiency states, it has not been reported in association with the transient immunosuppression following autologous bone marrow/peripheral stem cell transplantation (ABM/PSCT). We describe a patient who developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the lung approximately 2 weeks after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Although molecular studies showed no evidence of EBV genome in the biopsy material, the serologic profile with high IgM titers was suggestive of primary EBV infection. Complete radiologic remission occurred following reconstitution of the patient's immune response after a 2-week course of ganciclovir treatment. Despite the apparently low frequency of LPD (both LYG and EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoma) in the ABMT setting, we believe that it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients whose clinical course following ABMT is complicated by fevers, in the absence of an identifiable infectious process.
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2/53. sarcoidosis associated with multiple large pulmonary nodules.

    Parenchymal manifestations of pulmonary sarcoidosis include a diffuse, symmetric, reticulonodular interstitial pattern, a fibrotic pattern, and an acinar pattern. Large pulmonary nodules in sarcoidosis are rare, and their frequency (> 1 cm in diameter) has been estimated at 2-4%. We report a rare case of sarcoidosis associated with large bilateral pulmonary nodules. These nodules reached up to 7 cm in diameter, which is larger than any others reported previously. Furthermore, these nodular lesions developed within only 6 months of normal chest X-ray results and were not found to accompany bilateral hilar lymph adenopathy, which is observed in the usual course of sarcoidosis. As described above, this case of pulmonary sarcoidosis was significant not only in terms of the large size of the nodules but also the unique chest X-ray course.
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3/53. Management of an infant with diffuse bullous pulmonary lesions using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PURPOSE: To describe the anesthetic and ventilatory management of an infant with diffuse pulmonary bullous lesions. CLINICAL FEATURES: Four successive operations were scheduled for an infant with diffuse pulmonary bullous lesions. At the age of seven weeks, conventional positive pressure ventilation during laparotomy for intestinal occlusion led to arterial desaturation. This was corrected by returning to spontaneous respiration and deep inhalation anesthesia with halothane. Based on our ICU experience and due to a potential impaired oxygenation during conventional ventilation, we chose high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for bilateral sequential thoracotomies for bullectomies at the age of five months. We elected the same ventilatory mode for laparotomy for intestinal obstruction secondary to a polyp at the age of six months. This ventilatory mode was combined with total intravenous anesthesia and epidural analgesia and provided optimal oxygenation and ventilation as well as vital signs stability. CONCLUSION: High frequency oscillatory ventilation is a safe technique that may be used in the operating room in cases where conventional ventilation failed to provide satisfactory gas exchange.
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4/53. Use of high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Other than relapse, pulmonary complications are the most common cause of mortality in patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one noninfectious pulmonary complication of BMT. Presenting clinical findings include nonproductive cough usually without hemoptysis, dyspnea, hypoxemia, a decrease in hematocrit, and diffuse infiltrates on chest radiograph. PATIENT: We report a case of DAH after allogeneic BMT in a 6-yr-old female patient. Although a chest radiograph revealed patchy bilateral alveolar densities and large volumes of bright red blood were suctioned from the endotracheal tube, there was no evidence of coagulopathy and no infectious agent was identified on examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, blood, and urine. INTERVENTION: The child was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and experienced a complete clinical recovery from her pulmonary disease. RESULTS: The definition, presenting symptoms, findings and timing, and associated risk factors of DAH after BMT are reviewed. Prospective hypotheses for the pathogenesis of DAH after BMT are presented. Evidence for the role of high-dose corticosteroids for treatment of DAH after BMT and the role of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children with diffuse alveolar disease is also reviewed. CONCLUSION: This case supports the contention that early treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is warranted in children with DAH after BMT.
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5/53. Continuous negative chest-wall pressure. Successful use for severe respiratory distress in an adult.

    Continuous negative pressure (CNP) around the chest-wall and lower parts of the body was used to treat progressively alveolar disease. Therapy with CNP produced a substantial increase in arterial oxygen tension that was sustained and permitted a decrease in oxygen requirements to 40% within 24 hours. There were concomitant decreases in intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt and respiratory frequency. During CNP therapy, no adverse effects on heart rate or blood pressure were detected.
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6/53. Sleeve lobectomy of the middle lobe for hilar lung cancer with accompanying cardiomyopathy and actinomycosis.

    The indication for sleeve lobectomy of the middle lobe is limited, because the frequency of cancer occupying both the middle lobe and its bifurcation is low and the more commonly used middle and lower lobectomy is an alternate procedure. However, if a patient has accompanying cardiopulmonary restriction, lung preservation is paramount. We present a patient with hilar lung cancer (TisN0M0) associated with progressive cardiomyopathy, who underwent sleeve lobectomy of the middle lobe; the cancer took a favorable course.
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7/53. Management of tension pneumatocele with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    We report the successful application of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a patient with tension pneumatocele (TP). The proposed check-valve mechanism for the development of pneumatoceles predicts that positive-pressure ventilation could lead to distension of these airspaces and formation of TPs. Therefore, high-frequency ventilation could be more applicable in conditions, such as massive air leak due to bronchopleural fistula, that are difficult to manage by conventional ventilator modes.
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8/53. Massive hemorrhage during radiofrequency ablation of a pulmonary neoplasm.

    IMPLICATIONS: Radiofrequency ablation is a new investigational therapy for primary and secondary neoplasms. In this article, the authors describe the anesthetic management of the radiofrequency ablation of a pulmonary neoplasm complicated by massive hemorrhage.
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9/53. Neonatal pneumatocele as a complication of nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

    A preterm infant with mild respiratory insufficiency resulting from respiratory distress syndrome developed a pneumatocele after the start of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. pneumonia was excluded by sputum and blood cultures. Treatment with high frequency oscillation ventilation resulted in complete recovery.
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ranking = 39.134195533977
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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10/53. Post-partum recurrent sarcoidosis associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Immunologic abnormalities observed in sarcoidosis may suggest a link between this affection and autoimmune endocrine diseases. Indeed a high frequency of autoimmune thyroid diseases is observed in sarcoidosis. However association of type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with sarcoidosis is rare. We report the case of a type 1 diabetic woman in whom clinical and biological signs of sarcoidosis appeared after her first pregnancy with a relapse in the post-partum period of a second pregnancy. diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established on characteristic cutaneous, articular and pulmonary manifestations associated with elevated plasma levels of angiotensin converting enzyme. From this case, association between type 1 diabetes mellitus and sarcoidosis has been discussed as well as reciprocal relationship between sarcoidosis and pregnancy. Since familial history of sarcoidosis was present in this case, familial aspects of sarcoidosis have also been reviewed.
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ranking = 39.134195533977
keywords = high frequency, frequency
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