Cases reported "Lung Diseases"

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1/106. Recovery of both acute massive pulmonary hemorrhage and acute renal failure in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient with lupus anticoagulant by the combined therapy of plasmapheresis plus cyclophosphamide.

    Acute massive pulmonary hemorrhage (AMPH) is a rare and highly fatal complication in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report here survival in a case of AMPH in a SLE patient with both rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and lupus anticoagulant. The AMPH occurred while the nephritis was refractory to 2 courses of pulse methylprednisolone therapy. After combined therapy with plasmapheresis plus cyclophosphamide, circulating immune complex levels declined, AMPH recovered, and serum creatinine levels returned to normal. In conclusion, the combined therapy of plasmapheresis plus cyclophosphamide should be considered for treating AMPH especially in those SLE patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = complex
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2/106. Diffuse recidivant alveolar hemorrhage in a patient with hepatitis c virus-related mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    A case of diffuse and recidivant alveolar hemorrhage is presented in a patient with hepatitis c virus-related type II mixed cryoglobulinemia with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient was a 48-year-old white woman who suffered several outbreaks of pulmonary hemorrhage refractory to treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, plasmapheresis and interferon-alpha. The patient also presented persistent increased titers of immune complexes and rheumatoid factor with no histological hepatic alterations. Some considerations about evolution and treatment are given according to the updated physiopathology of this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = complex
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3/106. Successful treatment of rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    The rhodococcus is a mycobacterium-like organism which is normally a pathogen in foals. It usually spreads by direct contact or by aerosol from horse faeces and causes pyogranulomatous pulmonary infections. Occasionally, it acts opportunistically to infect immuno-compromised human hosts, most commonly those with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we report a pulmonary infection by rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient who was successfully treated. The literature on this infection in transplant recipients is also reviewed with respect to manifestations and treatment.
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ranking = 2847.4076019234
keywords = mycobacterium
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4/106. Pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium szulgai.

    We describe a rare case of pulmonary mycobacteriosis infected with rifampicin (RFP)-resistant Mycobacterium szulgai that was successfully eradicated with clarithromycin (CAM) treatment. An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a 4-week history of high fever, productive cough and malaise. Chest roentgenogram showed an infiltrative shadow in the left lower lung field. Isolated bacteria from sputum were acid-fast bacilli and identified as M. szulgai by the dna-dna hybridization method. Drug susceptibility tests showed resistance to RFP (MIC>100 microg/ml). Combined treatment with ethionamide, streptomycin and isoniazid based on the results of drug susceptibility tests resulted in clinical and radiologic improvement within two years. Additional treatment with CAM for another year resulted in complete eradication of the mycobacterium.
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ranking = 2847.4076019234
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/106. Pulmonary involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex: presentation of a case.

    A clinical case of a pulmonary involvement in tuberous sclerosis Complex is reported. This rare involvement (1%) is characterized by either interstitial disease or bullae; therefore, pneumothorax is likely to happen in lung parenchyma. Furthermore this complication induces a progressive serious respiratory failure until the death of the patient.
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ranking = 4
keywords = complex
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6/106. Pulmonary infection caused by an unusual, slowly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium.

    Mycobacterium triplex, a recently described slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, was isolated from a Finnish patient with pulmonary mycobacteriosis. The disease was successfully treated with antimycobacterial drugs. The strain isolated, which was similar to the type strain but differed slightly from the species description, was regarded as a variant of M. triplex sensu stricto. According to present knowledge this variant of the species has never been isolated before.
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ranking = 2847.4076019234
keywords = mycobacterium
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7/106. Fatal pulmonary-renal syndrome manifested with immune complex crescentic glomerulonephritis in a patient with MPO-ANCA seropositivity.

    Recent reports have indicated that a significant number of immune complex glomerulonephritis (GN) cases are associated with antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). However, most of the reported cases were associated with underlying primary glomerular diseases. When primary glomerular diseases were not found, immune deposits tended to be non-specific and the level of ANCA is usually borderline. We report here upon a case of life-threatening pulmonary-renal syndrome manifested simultaneously with immune complex GN and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA seropositivity. A 29- year-old man was admitted with pulmonary hemorrhage and rapidly progressing renal dysfunction. On admission, ANCA revealed perinuclear staining with a titer of 1:160. The MPO-ANCA level was 59 IU by ELISA. Other serologic markers including ANA, anti-DS-dna and anti-GBM Ab were negative. Renal biopsy showed cellular crescents in eight of 18 glomeruli. Immunofluorescence staining showed strong granular deposits of C3, C1q, IgG and IgM in the capillary loop and the mesangium. Electron microscopy showed multifocal electron dense deposits scattered in the mesangium, paramesangium, and the subendothelial and subepithelial areas. The patient initially responded to steroid and cyclophosphamide. MPO-ANCA decreased to less than 10 IU. Twenty three days after hospital discharge, the patient was re-admitted urgently with fever, generalized papulonodular skin lesions, and a recurrence of massive pulmonary hemorrhage and renal dysfunction. He died from uncontrolled pulmonary hemorrhage and respiratory insufficiency. P-ANCA titer and MPO-ANCA level at the second admission were 1:320 and 82 U/ml respectively. Interestingly, relapse was shown to be triggered by varicella zoster infection.
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ranking = 6
keywords = complex
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8/106. Generalized pulmonary hyperinflation and Fallot's tetralogy in a neonate investigated by pulmonary physiological and radioisotopic methods.

    An infant is described who presented a complex cardiopulmonary problem which was evaluated with the help of new physiological techniques. the infant was born at term after an emergency Caesarian section for fetal distress and was found to have meconium aspiration. He remained persistently tachypnoeic and hypoxic despite high ambient oxygen. Chest radiography suggested cystic lesions at the lung bases, and lung function tests confirmed hyperinflation with delayed nitrogen washout. In addition the child had signs of Fallot's tetralogy, and this diagnosis was confirmed by cardiac catheterization. Because of persistent hypoxia and tachypnoea disproportionate to the cardiac condition, the possibility of localized lung disease was considered. Regional lung function tests were carried out in the neonatal period and again at six months of age useing radioisotopic 13N given by both inhalation and injection. These studies showed gross ventilation/perfusion imbalance in the lungs, particularly marked at the bases, but with enough generalized abnormality to preclude the possibility of surgical intervention. The principles of the measurement of lung mechanics in the newborn by whole-body plethysmography, nitrogen washout, and regional radioisotopic spirometry are outlined. The particular value of these techniques in the evaluation of complex disorders is discussed, especially where both cardiac and pulmonary abnormalities are present.
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ranking = 2
keywords = complex
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9/106. Mycobacterium simiae infection in an Immunocompromised Patient without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    We report a case of lung infection due to Mycobacterium simiae in an immunocompromised patient without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient had multiple pulmonary nodules similar to those seen in cases of lung disease caused by mycobacterium avium in elderly women. Appropriate therapy for M. simiae disease should be determined because, in some cases, the risk of adverse effects can outweigh the potential benefits of treatment.
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ranking = 41.432791199923
keywords = avium
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10/106. Human infections due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum.

    Three cases of human disease due to Mycobacterium lentiflavum are reported. In the first, the mycobacterium was responsible for chronic pulmonary disease in an elderly woman; in the second, it gave rise to cervical lymphadenitis in a child; and in the third, it caused a liver abscess in a young AIDS patient.
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ranking = 2847.4076019234
keywords = mycobacterium
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