Cases reported "Lung Neoplasms"

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1/18. Fatal aspiration of sardine fry in a patient with lung cancer.

    We report a fatal case of death due to unusual aspiration of sardine fry in an elderly Japanese man with lung cancer. The cause of death was sudden respiratory arrest while eating. autopsy revealed peculiar materials with cell nests and pigmented particles, together with striated muscle and skin, in the ectatic bronchioles of the left lower lobe. Serial histologic sections suggested that the structures observed were the eyeballs of small animals that appeared to have been inhaled. The patient had habitually eaten sardine fry and rice gruel, which were also detected in the gastric contents. Therefore, the eyes were considered to be those of the fry, which is a popular food item in japan. This was confirmed by histologic examination of fry that were obtained commercially.
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2/18. Percutaneous transcatheter implantation of an aortic valve prosthesis for calcific aortic stenosis: first human case description.

    BACKGROUND: The design of a percutaneous implantable prosthetic heart valve has become an important area for investigation. A percutaneously implanted heart valve (PHV) composed of 3 bovine pericardial leaflets mounted within a balloon-expandable stent was developed. After ex vivo testing and animal implantation studies, the first human implantation was performed in a 57-year-old man with calcific aortic stenosis, cardiogenic shock, subacute leg ischemia, and other associated noncardiac diseases. Valve replacement had been declined for this patient, and balloon valvuloplasty had been performed with nonsustained results. methods AND RESULTS: With the use of an antegrade transseptal approach, the PHV was successfully implanted within the diseased native aortic valve, with accurate and stable PHV positioning, no impairment of the coronary artery blood flow or of the mitral valve function, and a mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Immediately and at 48 hours after implantation, valve function was excellent, resulting in marked hemodynamic improvement. Over a follow-up period of 4 months, the valvular function remained satisfactory as assessed by sequential transesophageal echocardiography, and there was no recurrence of heart failure. However, severe noncardiac complications occurred, including a progressive worsening of the leg ischemia, leading to leg amputation with lack of healing, infection, and death 17 weeks after PHV implantation. CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical implantation of a prosthetic heart valve can be successfully achieved with immediate and midterm hemodynamic and clinical improvement. After further device modifications, additional durability tests, and confirmatory clinical implantations, PHV might become an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of selected patients with nonsurgical aortic stenosis.
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3/18. Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter.

    The simultaneous occurrence of different types of thyroid carcinoma in a single patient is an unusual event. We report the case of a 52-year-old man with the history of two previous thyroid operations for benign goiters, who developed a recurrent goiter. The patient was referred to our department for thyroidectomy. In the pathohistological examination the specimen showed a 5 cm follicular carcinoma and a 0.3 cm papillary microcarcinoma in the right lobe as well as a 1.5 cm medullary carcinoma in the left lobe. All tumors were clearly separated from each other, representing the pure entity of each type. Postoperatively, RET germline mutation was ruled out by sequence analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes. Postoperative I-131-radioiodine scan showed multiple lung and liver metastases, while calcitonin was negative. There is no known common cause of these three different tumor types and they developed most independently from each other. The personal history of our patient was interesting in two aspects: (1) he suffered a period of severe staphylococcal sepsis with temporal immunosuppression and (2) he worked for long years as a coremaker in a foundry. This work represented possible long term exposure to inhalative carcinogenous toxins like hydrazine, which caused thyroid parafollicular cell adenomas in an animal model.
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4/18. Calculation of half-life of carcinoembryonic antigen after lung tumour resection: a case report.

    Since little is known about carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) half-life in humans, we followed changes in CEA levels after curative resection of a small bronchial adenocarcinoma in a 54 yr old man with an unusually high preoperative serum CEA level of 1,199 ng.ml-1. serum CEA followed a four phase curve with an initial increase, attributed to release of CEA from the tumour, a rapid fall during four days (CEA half-life 3.2 days), a slower exponential decay to normal levels during almost three months (CEA half-life 11 days) and eventually maintenance of normal levels for 14 months. These results are consistent with data from animal experiments and a single report on CEA half-life in humans, but CEA half-life seems longer in man than in animals. This observation also suggests that a very high serum CEA level should not in itself preclude curative surgical resection of a primary bronchogenic carcinoma.
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5/18. Foreign body removal: a new role for the fiberoptic bronchoscope.

    Artificial and animal lung models initially were used to investigate the removal of foreign bodies from the tracheobronchial tree with the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope. Different extraction instruments (claw, basket, forceps, and balloon catheter) were passed separately through the channel of the bronchofiberscope, and tested for usefulness prior to human application. The Fogarty balloon catheter served as a valuable aid in dislodging impacted objects so that the operator could then grasp them with the claw, basket or forceps. The wire claw recovered many of the metallic and organic objects, the wire basket was successful in retrieving only the bulky objects and the forceps (ACMI) was effective in capturing all of the metallic foreign bodies. These techniques, developed in our laboratory, are now being used to augment rigid bronchoscopy in the removal of foreign bodies from adults and older children. At the present time fiberoptic foreign body removal is not recommended for pediatric cases because of the small diameter of the trachea and glottis in infants and young children.
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6/18. Pulmonary alveolar cell carcinoma. Fine structural and in vitro study of a case and critical review of this entity.

    Alveolar cell carcinoma is an unusual pulmonary neoplasm composed of cells with the ultrastructural features of granular pneumocytes. In the past this lesion has been grouped with peripheral well-differentiated mucin-secreting adenocarcinomas under the heading of bronchiolo-alveolar cell carcinoma. Because the existence of alveolar cell carcinoma as a distinct entity has been disputed, we examined a case ultrastructurally and confirmed that the neoplastic cells exhibit granular pneumocyte differentiation (lamellar bodies and abundant surface microvilli). In addition, we have growth this tumor in organ culture for up to 5 months and have documented the persistence of granular pneumocyte differentiation during this period. The accumulated evidence from human and animal studies that the granular pneumocyte may undergo neoplastic transformation is briefly reviewed. We conclude that alveolar cell carcinoma is a distinct entity; however, the elucidation of its natural history must await series that separate this lesion from other pulmonary carcinomas.
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7/18. Clinical cardiotoxicity of esorubicin (4'-deoxydoxorubicin,DxDx): prospective studies with serial gated heart scans and reports of selected cases. A Cancer and leukemia Group B report.

    Esorubicin (4'-deoxydoxorubicin, DxDx) has undergone extensive Phase II investigation for the treatment of cancer. Based on in vitro and animal data, esorubicin may possess less myocardial toxicity when compared to doxorubicin. One hundred thirty-six patients with histologically or cytologically documented non-small cell lung cancer or advanced breast cancer were enrolled in two concurrent CALGB clinical trials using esorubicin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 administered intravenously every 21 days. No patient had previously received an anthracycline agent or had evidence of severe cardiovascular disease. Cardiotoxicity was observed in eleven patients. Four patients developed symptoms of congestive heart failure and three asymptomatic patients had a significant fall in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as measured by gated pool heart scan. Four patients had cardiac signs or symptoms of indeterminate relationship to esorubicin therapy. Of 44 patients receiving more than four cycles of therapy, 36 patients (82%) had serial gated pool heart scans permitting assessment of subclinical myocardial toxicity. A 5% drop in LVEF was observed following approximately 240 mg/m2 esorubicin; a 10% drop was observed after approximately 480 mg/m2. If further clinical studies are undertaken with esorubicin, investigators are advised to monitor cardiac function frequently once the cumulative esorubicin dose exceeds 240 mg/m2. If congestive failure appears during therapy, prompt cessation of esorubicin and institution of inotropic agents may provide effective palliation. Normal myocardial function may be restored within several months.
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8/18. Immunoreactive myelin basic protein in tumor cells associated with carcinomatous neuropathy.

    Tumors from two patients with carcinomatous neuropathy were studied with an immunohistochemical method using anti-myelin basic protein (anti-MBP) sera. In both cases, immunoreactive MBP was clearly demonstrated in some of the tumor cells, which were widely distributed either singly or, more often, in clusters. The staining intensity varied from cell to cell. An autoimmune mechanism to nervous elements has been suggested in the pathogenesis of carcinomatous neuropathy. MBP is known to be a highly specific and potent antigen that can induce allergic neuritis in animals. In one patient the progressively worsening neurologic condition rapidly improved after gastrectomy removed the carcinoma. It is possible that immunoreactive MBP in tumor cells may function as an "antigen" in the development of carcinomatous neuropathy.
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9/18. thrombosis-inducing activity found in plasma from two patients with advanced lung cancer.

    In 2 patients with lung cancer, the coagulation system was supposed to be activated by the findings of elevation of plasma fibrinogen, fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) and/or peripheral platelet counts. The plasma thromboxane b2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha levels in 1 patient were measured and proved to be 160 and 20 times higher than the control level, respectively. When 0.5 ml of plasma from each patient was given intravenously into Balb/c mice, the mice died within 5 min. The multiple thrombosis mainly composed of aggregated platelets and present in the lungs of these mice probably led to death of these animals. On the contrary, no such activity was found in plasma from healthy subjects or other patients with lung cancer who showed no manifestations of enhancement in the coagulation system.
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10/18. Omnipause neurons in two cases of opsoclonus associated with oat cell carcinoma of the lung.

    Opsoclonus is an involuntary eye movement disorder in which there are chaotic, usually conjugate, multidimensional saccadic eye movements. In this paper 2 cases of opsoclonus are reported, as a paraneoplastic phenomenon in association with oat cell carcinoma of the lung. It has previously been hypothesized that opsoclonus results from dysfunction of a group of premotor neurons in the brainstem called omnipause neurons. We describe the location of these cells in man by homology with animal studies, and describe the light microscopic appearance of these neurons in the 2 cases of opsoclonus. Although these neurons appeared normal it is still possible that their function was disturbed as a result of metabolic or neurotransmitter abnormalities.
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