Cases reported "Lung Neoplasms"

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1/30. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis.

    In spite of many references to carcinoma arising from endometriosis at extrauterine sites, there are few documented cases of carcinoma developing in association with adenomyosis. We present 2 rare cases of adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis. The relationship between prior frequent estrogen use and carcinogenesis and the possible effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are reviewed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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2/30. Hypotetraploidy in a patient with small cell carcinoma.

    While numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities characterize many hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic malignancies, the occurrence of polyploidy is by and large rare. We report here an interesting patient with small cell carcinoma (SCC) and hypotetraploidy initially referred to us because of a question of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, M3 subtype, with a question of a 15;17 translocation characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the patient did not have a 15;17 translocation and the final hematopathologic analysis of the bone marrow aspirates and immunohistochemistry studies subsequently revealed the patient to have SCC. Small cell carcinoma is a highly malignant and a very aggressive neoplasm. A review of the literature, using medline, Cancerlit, and the science Citation Index, revealed that in most, if not all, reports, the presence of polyploidy is noted as a rare entity. In leukemia, reports of polyploidy point to a distinct category of patients with a poor risk for which more intensive treatment is needed. Limited information is currently available to assess the risk of polyploidy in small cell carcinoma. Our case is important not only because of the relative rarity of polyploidy, but also because insights gained from the study of this and other similar patients may help shed additional light on the mechanism of carcinogenesis, which is not fully known to date. As polyploidization is a manifestation of genetic instability and as genetic instability has been implicated in the genesis and progression of many cancers, it is perhaps not too surprising that polyploidy in our case was associated with a poor disease outcome. The patient has since expired.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/30. Primary tracheal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma accompanying lung cancer. Common tumorigenesis or coincidental coexistence?

    We report a 67-year-old patient with coexistent tracheal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer the first case, to our knowledge, of this concomitant incidence in the literature. Chest radiography showed a mass in the right lung and pulmonary fibrosis. biopsy of the unanticipated tracheal irregularity revealed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, compatible with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. After right upper lobectomy, chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted, but the patient died 11 months postoperatively of pulmonary fibrosis. pulmonary fibrosis was suspected of having progressed from drug-induced pneumonitis caused by anticancer drugs. A common tumorigenetic factor may thus exist between tracheobronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and lung cancer.
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ranking = 3.0731618513872
keywords = tumorigenesis
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4/30. Two metachronous tumors in the radiotherapy fields of a patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    A woman with a family history of brain tumors in her daughter and sister presented with a breast cancer. She subsequently developed two metachronous primary tumors: a small-cell lung cancer and a colon carcinoma. These tumors arose within the internal mammary radiotherapy field and within the field irradiated for ovariolysis. The p53 gene was analyzed in whole blood lymphocytes using a functional assay developed in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, which tests the transcriptional competence of p53. dna from the colon cancer cells was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The patient had a germline-inactivating p53 mutation, confirming the diagnosis of li-fraumeni syndrome (LFS). The colon tumor and the lung tumor both conserved the mutant p53 allele but had lost the wild-type allele. This observation and the experimental data suggest an abnormal sensitivity of LFS patients to radiogenic carcinogenesis. The indications and extent of radiotherapy in patients with a clinical or molecular diagnosis of LFS should be discussed individually and should take into account the risk of secondary neoplasms arising in the radiation fields.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/30. Frequent microsatellite instability in lung cancer from chromate-exposed workers.

    Although chromium has been the most extensively investigated metal with respect to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, its genetic effects in humans are only partly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that lung cancer from chromate-exposed workers infrequently (20%) displayed p53 gene mutations as well as a particular mutation pattern. In the present study, we examined the replication error (RER) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 38 lung cancers from 28 chromate-exposed workers (chromate lung cancer group) and in 26 lung cancer patients without chromate exposure (non-chromate lung cancer group), using six microsatellite markers containing CA repeats: D3S647 (3p23), D3S966 (3p21.3), D3S1289 (3p21.1), D5S346 (5q21-q22), D9S161 (9p21), and TP53 (17p13.1). The RER phenotype was defined as the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) at two or more loci. Thirty (78.9%) of 38 tumors in the chromate lung cancer group exhibited RER. In contrast, only four (15.4%) of 26 tumors in the non-chromate lung cancer group exhibited RER. The frequency of RER in the chromate lung cancer group was significantly higher than that in the non-chromate lung cancer group (P < 0.0001). By contrast, the frequency of LOH at 3p, 5q, 9p, and 17p loci in tumors with chromate exposure was not significantly different from that in tumors without chromate exposure. In the chromate lung cancer group, the period of chromate exposure in workers with RER (24.5 /- 6.7 yr) was significantly longer than that in workers without RER (17.0 /- 3.5 yr) (P = 0.0046). In addition, a longer period of chromate exposure was associated with a tendency toward a higher frequency of MSI. This finding suggests that MSI may play a role in chromium-induced carcinogenesis. In addition to our previous study of p53 mutations, the present findings suggest that the carcinogenic mechanism of chromate lung cancer may differ from that of non-chromate lung cancer.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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6/30. Sequential changes of the DMBT1 expression and location in normal lung tissue and lung carcinomas.

    Deleted in Malignant brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) at chromosome region 10q25.3-q26.1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Recent studies on its expression in lung cancer have led to divergent results and have raised a controversial discussion. Moreover, DMBT1 has been implicated with epithelial protection in the respiratory tract. We thus wondered how a loss of its expression could be related to carcinogenesis in the lung. To address these issues, we investigated the DMBT1 expression and location in the normal lung and lung cancer. By reverse-transcription PCR, a down-regulation of the DMBT1 expression in lung cancer cell lines is commonly detected. Immunohistochemical studies in situ demonstrate that there are also low steady-state levels of DMBT1 in the normal respiratory epithelium. However, an up-regulation takes place in the tumor-flanking epithelium and upon respiratory inflammation. lung carcinomas show increased DMBT1 expression compared to that of undiseased lung tissue, but decreased DMBT1 levels compared to that of tumor-flanking and inflammatory tissue. A switch from a lumenal secretion to a secretion to the extracellular matrix takes place during lung carcinogenesis. Our data may resolve the controversial discussion on its expression in lung carcinomas. We hypothesize that the changes of the DMBT1 expression and location do reflect a time course that may point to possible mechanisms for its role in epithelial cancer.
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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7/30. Minute lung carcinoma associated with focal honeycombed lesion.

    We report a case of minute lung carcinoma that developed in a focal honeycombed lesion in the right lung. A 70-year-old man presented hemosputum, and a cytological examination result was at class IV. A right lower lobectomy of the lung was performed. Microscopically, the thickened alveolar wall revealed tumor cells indicating a minute carcinoma, and showed squamous hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia, with the carcinoma in the distal airway epithelium. This peripheral lung carcinoma in a focal honeycombed lesion demonstrated the various stages of multistep carcinogenesis, which is recognized in hilar type squamous cell carcinoma. To date, the association between a honeycombed lesion and lung cancer has been poorly described. Here we have presented clear evidence of the association of this carcinoma with the honeycombed lesion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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8/30. Molecular cloning, identification and analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma-related genes.

    OBJECTIVE: To clone and identify genes differentially expressed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). methods: A subtracted cDNA library of human LSCC was constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Through screening, the subtracted library clones, representing mRNAs that are truly differentially expressed in LSCC but not in normal lung tissues, were selected out to identify by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 12 patients of LSCC and performed dna sequencing. Nucleic acid homology searches were performed using the BLAST program. Partial novel genes were detected by Northern blot. RESULTS: By this technique, we obtained 10 differentially expressed gene cDNA fragments of LSCC. Among them six were already known genes; two sequences were already identified but their functions were still unknown (hypothetical protein); two were novel (GenBank accession number were AF363068 and AY032661, respectively). The results from semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcription expression level of these clones including PPP1CB, caluminin, S100A2, HSNOV1, OCIA and AY032661 was down-regulated in 12 cases of LSCC, while the transcription of HSP90, ferritin, gp96 and AF363068 was up-regulated in same cases. CONCLUSION: SSH is a powerful technique of high sensitivity for the detection of differential gene expression in LSCC and an effective method to clone novel genes. Six already known genes identified by SSH technique have been already implicated in the pathogenesis of lung carcinogenesis, or they are involved in immunological defense mechanism in human body. Two hypothetical proteins probably also play an important role in lung cancer pathogenesis. The function of two novel genes in lung carcinogenesis is under research.
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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9/30. Malignant blue nevus: a case report and molecular analysis.

    Malignant blue nevus is a rare melanocytic tumor that is described by some authors as a variant of malignant melanoma, whereas others regard it as a distinct entity. To our knowledge no molecular studies of this tumor have been performed, although the molecular pathogenesis of conventional melanomas has been extensively described. We present a case of malignant blue nevus that developed in a 15-cm congenital blue nevus on the back of a 41-year-old man. Subsequent regional lymph node and lung metastases developed within 1 and 29 months, respectively. We performed a molecular analysis for loss of heterozygosity on microdissected samples from the spectrum of benign to malignant blue nevus, using a panel of eight genes (MTS1, MXI1, CMM1, p53, NF1, L-myc hOGG1, and MCC), many of which are commonly associated with conventional melanomas. No loss of heterozygosity was detected, despite informativeness in seven genes. We suggest that malignant blue nevus may represent a distinct entity with a different molecular pathway to tumorigenesis than that of conventional melanomas.
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ranking = 0.76829046284679
keywords = tumorigenesis
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10/30. Barrett's esophagus and squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with psychogenic vomiting.

    We report the association of Barrett's esophagus and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the distal esophagus in a young 31-yr-old woman with a history of self-induced psychogenic vomiting. The development of intestinalized columnar mucosa and esophageal cancer in this young patient illustrates the complicated associations between human behavior and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in esophageal carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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