Cases reported "Lung Neoplasms"

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1/256. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung. Report of a case with cytohistologic and clinical correlation.

    BACKGROUND: Giant cell carcinoma (GCC) of the lung is an unusual tumor characterized by an aggressive outcome. CASE: A peripheral lung tumor was observed in an elderly male. At presentation the clinical symptoms were cough, thoracic pain and hemoptysis. Chest roentgenography showed a left pleural effusion and neutrophilia in the blood. Bronchoscopic examination showed a peripheral tumor mass that could not be biopsied. bronchoalveolar lavage was negative. The patient underwent a cerebrovascular accident and died. The autopsy showed a peripheral giant cell tumor of the left lung that involved regional and mediastinal lymph nodes. touch imprints showed tridimensional clusters of pleomorphic and large cells, some of which were multinucleated, containing leukocytes in their cytoplasm. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the typical cytohistologic features of GCT of the lung, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any peripheral lung tumor composed of large cells. Clinical correlation is helpful in reaching the correct diagnosis.
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2/256. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A study of 69 patients. Groupe d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Maladies "Orphelines" Pulmonaires (GERM"O"P).

    Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by peribronchial, perivascular, and perilymphatic proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells leading to cystic lesions. The hypothesis of hormonal dependence and the effectiveness of hormonal therapy have not yet been demonstrated conclusively, and the prevalence of extrathoracic manifestations and the survival of patients with LAM are somewhat contradictory. A multicentric retrospective study was conducted in an attempt to describe better the initial features, the diagnostic procedures, the associated lesions, and, above all, the management and course of LAM in a large homogeneous series of 69 stringently selected patients, with a majority of cases diagnosed since 1990. The aim of the study, based on a review of the literature, also was to provide a comprehensive view of this uncommon disease. The clinical features were in keeping with previous studies, but we found that exertional dyspnea and pneumothorax were the most common features, and chylous involvement was less frequent. LAM was diagnosed after menopause in about 10% of cases. The onset of LAM occurred during pregnancy in 20% of cases, and a clear exacerbation of LAM was observed in 14% of cases during pregnancy. Pulmonary LAM was diagnosed on lung histopathology in 83% of cases, but renal angiomyolipoma, observed in 32% of our patients, may be a useful diagnostic criterion when associated with typical multiple cysts on chest CT scan or with chylous effusion. Chest CT scan was more informative than chest X-ray (normal in 9% of cases), and may be indicated in spontaneous pneumothorax or renal angiomyolipoma in women of childbearing age. About 40% of the patients had a normal initial spirometry, while an obstructive ventilatory defect (44%), a restrictive ventilatory defect (23%), was observed in other patients. Initial diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was frequently decreased (82%). Hormonal therapy was administered in 57 patients, but a clear > or = 15% improvement of FEV1 was observed in only 4 evaluable patients, treated with tamoxifen and progestogens (n = 2), progestogen (n = 1), and oophorectomy (n = 1). Probably 1 of the most urgent needs for clinical research in LAM is to test the currently available hormonal treatments in the context of international multicenter prospective controlled studies. pleurodesis was performed in 40 patients. lung transplantation was performed in 13 patients, 7.8 /- 5.2 years after onset of LAM, in whom the mean FEV1 was 0.57 /- 0.15 L. After a follow-up of 2.3 /- 2.2 years, 9 patients were alive. Mean follow-up from onset of disease to either death or closing date was 8.2 /- 6.3 years. overall survival was better than usually reported in LAM, and Kaplan-Meier plot showed survival probabilities of 91% after 5 years, 79% after 10 years, and 71% after 15 years of disease duration.
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3/256. An autopsy case of a malignant pericardial mesothelioma in a Japanese young man.

    An autopsy case of a malignant pericardial mesothelioma in a 27-year-old man with no history of exposure to asbestos is reported. He was admitted for heart failure due to pericardial effusion of unknown origin and surgically drained, but later died. The diagnosis of a malignant pericardial mesothelioma was made on the basis of histologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings. The tumor was located on the pericardium, but autopsy revealed that it had spread extensively in the mediastinum and the lungs. Microscopically, the tumor cells were epithelial like and contained histochemically demonstrable glycogen and hyaluronic acid. Immunohistochemical studies of the tumor demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 19, muscle actin HHF35, epithelial membrane antigen, CA125, p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 whereas the tumor was negative for cytokeratins 10 and 17, carcinoembryonic antigen, vimentin, epithelial antigen BerEP4, S-100, c-erbB2 and bcl-2. A high MIB-1 labeling index was noted. Under the electron microscope the tumor cells exhibited long, thin villi. The operation and autopsy findings thus revealed this to be a very rare case of malignant pericardial mesothelioma in a young man.
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4/256. Unilateral absence of lung perfusion on pulmonary scintigraphy secondary to lung cancer with extensive pleural metastases from lung cancer.

    A man with a 20-year history of smoking who underwent Tc-99m MAA Pulmonary perfusion imaging, which showed virtually absent perfusion of the right lung and fairly normal perfusion of the left lung. Eighteen days after the study, the patient died; at autopsy poorly differentiated carcinoma of the right lung was confirmed, which included extensive thickened pleura and plaques deposits and compression of the right lung; 200 ml of bloody pleural effusion was also found on the right side. The unilateral absence of lung perfusion on Tc-99m MAA pulmonary scintigraphy might reflect the autopsy findings of the right lung and pleura.
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5/256. Mesothelial hyperplasia with reactive atypia: diagnostic pitfalls and role of immunohistochemical studies-a case report.

    The cytomorphologic features of highly reactive mesothelial cells can be difficult to distinguish from malignant cells. We report on an unusual case of mesothelial hyperplasia in a pericardial effusion. The specimen contained bizarre-shaped cells and large tissue fragments in a patient with a history of lung carcinoma. The atypical cells were negative for CEA and LeuM-1 and positive for cytokeratins (AE1/3) and HBME-1. Strong HBME-1 positivity supported a mesothelial origin of the atypical cells and led to the diagnosis of reactive mesothelium. While HBME-1 cannot be used as the sole marker to establish an mesothelial origin; its use in a immunohistochemistry panel may be useful in individual cases to distinguish reactive mesothelial cells from carcinoma in effusion cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2000;22:113-116.
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6/256. Human herpesvirus 8-associated solid lymphomas that occur in AIDS patients take anaplastic large cell morphology.

    Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is a recently isolated human herpesvirus frequently identified in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Here we report three cases of HHV-8-bearing solid lymphomas that occurred in AIDS patients (Cases 1-3). All three patients were homosexual men presenting extranodal masses in the lungs (Case 1) or skin (Cases 2 and 3), together with the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma (Case 1), primary effusion lymphoma (Case 2), or multicentric Castleman's disease (Case 3). These solid lymphomas exhibited anaplastic large cell morphology and expressed CD30, corresponding to the recent diagnostic criteria of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The chromosomal translocation t(2;5)-associated chimeric protein p80NPM/ALK was not observed in any of these cases. HHV-8 was detected in all of these cases by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry of HHV-8-encoded ORF73 protein, and in situ hybridization of T1.1. Epstein-Barr virus was detected only in Cases 2 and 3 by in situ hybridization. It is interesting that inoculation of a cell line obtained from a primary effusion lymphoma cell in Case 2 to severe combined immunodeficiency mice produced HHV-8-positive and Epstein-Barr virus-negative tumors in inoculated sites. These tumor cells exhibited phenotypes of ALCL that were identical to the subcutaneous tumor cells of this particular patient. These findings clearly show that HHV-8 can associate with solid lymphomas and that it can take anaplastic large cell morphology. Those lymphomas should be distinguished from the classical ALCL as were defined by the revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms even though morphology and a part of immunophenotype mimic that of classical ALCL.
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keywords = effusion
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7/256. Relation between cell composition of pleural effusions in patients with pulmonary carcinomas and their clinical courses.

    1) Cancer cells of the effusions were decreased by chemotherapy, but this did not always indicate a good clinical course. 2) When the clinical condition was fairly good, the percentage of lymphocytes predominated in the pleural effusion. 3) When the clinical conditions became rather critical, there was an increase in the number of macrophage. 4) The cytologic findings were observed prior to the time the clinical symptoms became manifest. 5) The percentage of lymphocytes and macrophages in pleural effusions was not related to the percentage of lymphocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood.
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keywords = effusion
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8/256. Lung metastasis invading the left atrium--CT diagnosis.

    A case of metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma invading the left atrium is reported in a patient with clinical signs of cardiac tamponade. The intracavitary extension of the tumour was clearly demonstrated by contrast enhanced CT. As CT plays an important role in the evaluation of patients with intrathoracic masses, intravenous contrast medium is recommended in those cases with associated clinical symptoms of heart disease or pericardial effusion. Its use may establish the diagnosis of cardiac involvement.
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keywords = effusion
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9/256. Primary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung.

    Lymphoepithelioma is an undifferentiated carcinoma with prominent lymphoid stroma in the nasopharynx. Tumors with similar histology have been reported with other localizations, including the lungs, and are designated as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELC). Primary LELC of the lung is very rare, and scant information is available in the scientific literature. This paper details the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian male patient with the diagnosis (determined by thoracotomy) of primary LELC of the lung. Immunohistochemical analysis was negative for Epstein-Barr virus, as was the in situ hybridization of the tumor cells. observation of the nasopharynx and a magnetic resonance image of the cavum were normal. Because the tumor (T4N2M0) could not be resected, the patient was treated with chemotherapy, carboplatin/5-fluorouracil, completing two cycles. The patient's condition worsened when he developed contralateral pneumonia, which was then followed by pericardial effusion. The patient died 36 h later from cardiac tamponade. Presented here is a revision of this rare pathology, not often reported in the literature.
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keywords = effusion
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10/256. Successful low-dose concurrent chemotherapy and radiation for locally advanced or inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma: a report of six cases.

    Many studies now demonstrate high overall response rates with concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CCR) for locoregionally advanced or inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) but often with severe toxicity and only modest improvement in survival beyond 3 years. We report a simple CCR protocol for NSCLC that has resulted in long-term disease-free survival with low toxicity. In this retrospective review, 84 patients with NSCLC were seen between 1985 and 1991. Of these, 10 patients had stage IIIa or IIIb NSCLC without effusion or inoperable NSCLC, with no failed prior treatment at the time of referral for oncology evaluation. Six of these were treated with CCR consisting of three cycles of cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil administered concurrently with radiation treatment followed by maintenance chemotherapy for at least five additional cycles. All six patients treated with this protocol had complete response with minimal side effects. Survival times ranged from 4.5 to more than 10 years. Three patients survived in complete remission; three others were in complete remission at the time of death due to unrelated causes. Stage III NSCLC without effusion and inoperable NSCLC can be treated effectively with concurrent local and systemic treatment without significant toxicity. In patients with complete response, maintenance chemotherapy may overcome residual microscopic systemic disease, leading to long-term survival and possible cure. The CCR strategy that resulted in this favorable outcome is noteworthy and should be pursued in larger numbers of patients.
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keywords = effusion
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