Cases reported "Lung Neoplasms"

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1/64. Double cancers of the lung and esophagus associated with a sarcoid-like reaction in their regional lymph nodes: report of a case.

    A case of double cancers of the lung and esophagus associated with a sarcoid-like reaction in their regional lymph nodes is reported. A 73-year-old man with hemosputum was found to have a mass in his right lower lung field on a chest X-ray. Based on a diagnosis of lung cancer, a right middle and lower lobectomy with a dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. Microscopically, a well developed granulomatous reaction was seen in the dissected mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Three years after the pulmonary resection, he was admitted to our hospital because of dysphagia. A diagnosis of lower esophageal cancer was made. A lower esophagectomy with a total gastrectomy was performed. A sarcoid-like reaction comprising epithelioid cells and giant cells was seen in the regional lymph nodes. No clinical findings indicative of systemic sarcoidosis were observed. This rare condition may therefore help to improve our overall understanding of the relationship between malignant neoplasms and sarcoid-like reactions in the regional lymph nodes.
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2/64. Metachronous pulmonary and oesophageal neoplasia.

    Primary carcinomas of the lung and oesophagus are common, surgical resection offers the only hope of long-term survival with both conditions. We present the unusual case of a patient who underwent transhiatal oesophagectomy for an adenocarcinoma carcinoma of the oesophagus, 5 years after left pneumonectomy for small cell carcinoma of the lung.
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3/64. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast presenting as a breast abscess.

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the breast is a very rare neoplasm, with only 75 cases reported in the English literature. Herein, we report four new cases and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of this unusual tumor in a retrospective review of all cases of SCC of the breast at our institution from 1990 to 1998. Four patients with breast SCC were identified, with a mean age of 70 years. Two patients with "pure" SCC (no features of ductal carcinoma) were initially treated for breast abscess. Two other patients with features of both SCC and ductal carcinoma had skin erythema associated with an underlying mass, and infectious etiology was considered in each case. Mean tumor size was 4.9 cm. Both patients with pure SCC underwent extensive evaluation for primary tumors at other sites. Two patients developed early systemic metastasis. SCC of the breast is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and may be confused with breast abscess. For this reason, breast biopsy should be considered in cases of breast abscess. Treatment of primary SCC of the breast is similar to that of more common types of breast cancer (i.e., breast conservation is possible and lymph node dissection is recommended). Because metastasis to the breast from other primary tumor sites has been reported (lung, cervix, skin, and esophagus), patients with pure SCC should undergo evaluation to exclude this possibility.
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4/64. Case of spontaneous regression of metastatic lesions of leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus.

    A rare case of spontaneous regression of esophageal leiomyosarcoma is reported. A 63-year-old woman underwent esophagectomy and reconstruction at our hospital after diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. Nineteen months after esophagectomy, a coin lesion was detected in the right lung and right thoracotomy revealed pleural dissemination. The lesion in the right lung was resected and was confirmed histologically as recurrence of leiomyosarcoma. During further surgery, metastatic lesions were found in the spleen and pleura. However, all metastatic lesions were found to decrease without any anti-cancer therapy.
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5/64. Toxicity of photodynamic therapy after combined external beam radiotherapy and intraluminal brachytherapy for carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To describe the toxicity of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract who received prior treatment with external beam irradiation and intraluminal brachytherapy (IB). STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND methods: hospital records of PDT patients were reviewed. Three patients who received prior treatment with external beam irradiation and IB were identified. Two patients had esophageal carcinoma treated with combined chemotherapy and external beam irradiation (55.8 and 50.4 Gy) followed by IB (12 Gy and 35 Gy at 1 cm). These patients then received PDT for treatment of recurrence (2 mg/kg Photofrin injection and 2 light applications: 630 nm, 150--200 J/cm, 200--400 mW/cm). One patient had non-small cell lung cancer treated with external beam irradiation (60 Gy) followed by IB (36.1 Gy at 1 cm) and then received PDT for recurrence (1 mg/kg Photofrin injection and one light application: 630 nm, 150 J/cm, 200 mW/cm). RESULTS: One patient with esophagus cancer had formation of a tracheoesophageal fistula, which required stent placement. The other esophageal cancer patient developed quadriplegia due to an epidural abscess arising from a fistula with the diseased portion of the esophagus. The lung cancer patient had massive hemoptysis after the procedure and died 2 days later. autopsy showed necrotizing arteritis of the right pulmonary artery. CONCLUSION: patients with upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma who have received treatment with both external beam irradiation and IB seem to be at higher risk for complications when treated with PDT.
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keywords = esophagus
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6/64. ANNA-3 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody: marker of lung cancer-related autoimmunity.

    Two anti-neuronal nuclear antibodies (ANNA-1 and ANNA-2) are markers of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity related to small-cell carcinoma. ANNA-2 is also related to breast carcinoma. Here we define a third IgG specificity (ANNA-3), identified in 11 patients (10 adults) by immunofluorescence screening of sera from approximately 68,000 patients with suspected paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. ANNA-3 binds prominently to nuclei of cerebellar Purkinje neurons, not to cytoplasm, granular neurons, or enteric neurons, but distinctively to renal glomerular podocytes. Western blots revealed an approximately 170 kDa antigen, in cerebellum and small-cell carcinoma. IgG eluted from this protein reproduced Purkinje and podocyte nuclear staining. ANNA-2 in 8 of 32 cases bound to podocyte nuclei but not to the 170 kDa protein. Healthy subjects and control neurological and cancer patients lack ANNA-3. Neurological accompaniments, subacute and usually multifocal, included sensory/sensorimotor neuropathies, cerebellar ataxia, myelopathy, brain stem and limbic encephalopathy. All of 9 adults followed had an intrathoracic neoplasm, seven biopsied within 7 months (five small-cell lung carcinomas and two adenocarcinomas, one lung, one esophagus) and two imaged, one early, the other 3 years later. Thus, immunohistochemical and Western blot criteria can now identify six IgG markers of neurological autoimmunity related to small-cell carcinoma, their frequency being ANNA-1 > collapsin response-mediator protein-5 > amphiphysin > Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody-2 = ANNA-2 = ANNA-3.
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keywords = esophagus
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7/64. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma developing from a Hurthle cell tumor: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor in elderly people with a long history of multinodular goiter and is usually associated with a rapidly fatal clinical evolution. The tumor often develops as a result of anaplastic transformation of a slowly growing papillary carcinoma or follicular neoplasm. CASE: An 85-year-old woman had a multinodular goiter and had been asymptomatic, with a normal white blood cell count and chest radiograph three months prior to her hospital admission for the treatment. The tumor presented with low grade fever, leukocytosis, multiple metastatic lung nodules and enlargement of the intrathoracic thyroid in a period of three months, causing compression of the esophagus and trachea. Despite a total thyroidectomy, the tumor recurred within one month and caused dysphagia and death. CONCLUSION: FNAB permitted the diagnosis of an anaplastic thyroid carcinoma arising from an intrathoracic Hurthle cell tumor.
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8/64. Direct esophageal metastasis from a distant primary tumor is a submucosal process: a review of six cases.

    Malignant esophageal stricture secondary to invasion from a tumor arising in a contiguous organ is a relatively rare finding; even more uncommon is a direct metastasis to the esophagus from a distant primary carcinoma. We present six cases, the largest current series, of esophageal strictures secondary to metastases from a separate primary cancer. We reviewed the records of 20 patients treated at virginia Mason Medical Center between 1972 and 2000 with a diagnosis of malignant esophageal stricture secondary to an extraesophageal primary carcinoma. patients whose stricture appeared to be secondary to esophageal invasion or compression from a contiguous tumor or lymph nodes were excluded. The remaining six patients who had metastases to the esophagus itself were reviewed with respect to the nature of the primary tumor, presentation, radiologic and endoscopic findings, and treatment. Among the 20 patients reviewed, 14 were excluded owing to either contiguous involvement from a nearby primary malignancy, regional nodal involvement, or complications of external beam radiation treatment. Six patients were considered to have direct metastasis to the esophagus from distant primary malignancies. The mean age of these patients was 72 years (range 68-74). Two of the primary lesions were lung carcinoma, while four primaries were breast cancers. The average time interval from the diagnosis of a primary tumor to esophageal involvement was 7 years in patients with breast cancer and 5 months in patients with lung cancer. Three patients were palliated with endoscopic dilation and stent placement. The other three patients have died secondary to upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Metastatic cancer to the esophagus is a rare occurrence. The process is usually submucosal and can be difficult to diagnose. The diagnosis should be considered when a patient presents with malignant dysphagia and has a background of distant carcinoma.
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keywords = esophagus
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9/64. Sarcoma of the thyroid gland: a case report.

    Sarcoma of the thyroid gland is a very uncommon malignant tumor (<1% of thyroid cancers) characterized by severe local course and rapid metastatic dissemination and very poor prognosis. We report the case of an 84-year-old woman hospitalized for expiratory dyspnea, severe malnutrition and swallowing disorders leading to bronchial infection. She had a voluminous (20 cm) extra-thoracic right-neck goiter with a considerable superficial venous pattern that had developed on an old goiter before growing recently. CEA and calcitonin levels were normal. The cervical-thoracic CT demonstrated a partially necrosed heterogeneously hypodense tumor compressing the esophagus and the trachea with displacement of adjacent structures which were not directly invaded. Large areas of necrosis and a probable metastatic image measuring 3 cm in the right median pulmonary lobe were observed. Macrobiopsy disclosed grade 3 sarcoma. Complete resection delivered a 3.170 kg tumor. histology confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoma without neoplastic extension. Apart from right recurrent palsy, the initial post-operative period was satisfactory and the patient was discharged. Four and a half months later she was rehospitalized with local recurrence with a large metastatis in the right lung. She died two weeks later.
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keywords = esophagus
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10/64. Iatrogenic esophagobronchial fistula arising in irradiated Barrett's esophagus.

    A 47-yr-old male underwent a right upper lobectomy for stage IIB bronchoalveolar carcinoma followed by 4600 Gy of irradiation. One year later a fistula formed from an ulcerated region of Barrett's esophagus into the left main bronchus. Bronchotomy repair with onlay patch intercostal muscle flap and esophageal repair with serratus anterior muscle flap plus postoperative esophageal stent placement for stricture resulted in good functional results.
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