Cases reported "Lung Neoplasms"

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11/665. Multiple pulmonary metastasis of prostatic carcinoma with little or no bone or lymph node metastasis. Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    We describe 2 cases of prostatic carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. In the first case there was no lymph node or bone metastasis, and in the second case there was only one bony metastatic lesion. Presentation, etiology and management are discussed.
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12/665. The marked anticancer effect of combined VCR, MTX, and indomethacin against drug-resistant recurrent small cell lung carcinoma after conventional chemotherapy: report of a case.

    In a previous study, we discovered that indomethacin was an effective modulator of the sensitivity of pulmonary carcinoma cells to vincristine (VCR), methotrexate (MTX), adriamycin (ADR), and etoposide (VP-16). We describe herein the case of a 61-year-old-man with multiple brain, lung, liver, and bone metastases from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) that recurred after intensive chemotherapy, who showed no signs of remission following conventional chemotherapy. The general condition of the patient deteriorated until he required morphine sulfate to control his severe diffuse pain. In an attempt to improve this patient's quality of life (QOL), he was discharged from hospital and treated at the outpatient clinic with modulation therapy using indomethacin as an anodyne instead of morphine sulfate. Signs of almost complete remission to only one cycle of combination therapy with VCR, MTX, and indomethacin were observed without any obvious adverse effects. This case report serves to demonstrate that modulation therapy combined with VCR, MTX, and indomethacin may be useful in the treatment of patients with drug-resistant recurrent SCLC.
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13/665. Differential uptake of TI-201 by small-cell lung cancer in a patient with pneumoconiosis-related pulmonary nodules.

    A 68-year-old man with pneumoconiosis was thought to have small-cell lung cancer based on the results of a biopsy of a bone tumor. Three pulmonary nodules were observed on a chest radiograph. Compared with a chest radiograph taken 4 months earlier, one of the nodules had grown. It was difficult to differentiate this nodule from pneumoconiosis-related benign pulmonary nodules from the appearance on the chest radiograph and CT. Ga-67 scintigraphy and TI-201 lung SPECT were performed to characterize these nodules. TI-201 SPECT showed differential high uptake in the enlarged nodule, whereas Ga-67 scintigraphy showed equally intense uptake in all these nodules. Transbronchial biopsy of the nodule that showed high TI-201 uptake revealed cancer cell nests against a background of interstitial fibrosis. The pathologic diagnosis was small-cell lung cancer that had developed in lung scar tissue. This case suggests the utility of TI-201 in scintigraphic assessments of pneumoconiosis-related pulmonary nodules when lung cancer is suspected.
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14/665. breast carcinoma diverging to aberrant melanocytic differentiation: a case report with histopathologic and loss of heterozygosity analyses.

    A case of primary breast cancer showing differentiation to malignant melanoma is reported. To obtain insight into the clonal relationship between the two components of the tumor, polymerase chain reaction-based microsatellite analysis to detect loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 3q, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 10q, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, 17q, and 18q with microdissected tissues of both components was performed in addition to histologic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural techniques. The tumor consisted of a combination of carcinoma and melanoma with morphologic transition. Metastases in the lymph nodes and thoracic spinal bone marrow showed dual tissue structure. One of the metastatic lung tumors showed melanomatous tissue structure. The abundant pigment in the cells was positive for Fontana-Masson staining and bleached with potassium permanganate. The carcinoma component was positive for epithelial membrane antigen and CA19-9, but the melanoma component was negative. Conversely, the melanoma component was positive for HMB45 and vimentin, but the carcinoma component was negative. Electron microscopic analysis showed premelanosomes and melanosomes in the melanoma component. Microsatellite analysis showed the same genetic alterations with loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 1p, 3q, 4q, 6q, 9p, 10q, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, and 17q in in situ, invasive, and metastatic foci. We concluded that the carcinoma and melanoma components had arisen from the same clone and that this breast carcinoma might have diverged to aberrant malignant melanoma through multiple genetic alterations in the early period of ductal carcinoma in situ.
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15/665. Infantile myofibromatosis: a case study and review of literature.

    Infantile myofibromatosis is an unusual condition generally presenting in the newborn period. The case being reported is that of a female newborn who had multiple lesions that involved skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscles, bone, and lungs. The disease was diagnosed because of the easily palpable skin tumors and subcutaneous nodules that were obvious immediately after birth. The diagnosis was established by histopathological examination of one nodule that showed a spindle-celled mesenchymatogenic lesion demonstrating the morphological and immuno-phenotype characteristics of myofibroblastic differentiation. The histologic picture, combined with the clinical manifestations and the imaging findings, are consistent with infantile myofibromatosis. The physical condition of the newborn was excellent and remains so six months later. The tumors of the skin and the subcutaneous nodules have gradually regressed without therapy. At the age of six months, four (4) nodules are palpable; the infant is under continuous observation.
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16/665. Synovial sarcoma, histologically mimicking primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma at distant sites.

    We report a case of synovial sarcoma (SS) showing unusual histology at distant sites. A 47-year-old man was aware of a tumor on the sole of his left foot. After preoperative chemotherapy with a diagnosis of SS, wide excision was performed. During postoperative chemotherapy, multiple tumorous lesions developed in the bone (including the whole spine) and both lungs. The patient died 1 year later. Histologically, the excised tumor of the foot showed a biphasic cellular pattern typical of SS, whereas at autopsy the bone and lung lesions were composed only of undifferentiated small round cells with cytoplasmic fibrillar processes. Homer-Wright rosettes were also observed. Immunohistochemically, 80% of the bone and lung tumor cells expressed MIC2 protein homogeneously. To clarify whether the bone and lung round cell tumors were metastatic lesions or second malignancies, especially primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing's sarcoma (ES), we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of tumor type-specific fusion gene transcripts. The SYT/SSX fusion transcript was identified in both the foot and lung lesions, whereas the EWS/FLI1 transcript was not detected in either lesion. Therefore, we concluded that the multiple bone and lung tumors were poorly differentiated metastatic tumors, which arose from the SS of the foot. We also conclude that the identification of chimeric fusion transcripts can be successfully applied to poorly differentiated sarcomas and will help in the differential diagnosis of tumors that cannot be distinguished by conventional morphological examinations. Also, it should be remembered that cytoplasmic staining for MIC2 protein may occur in sarcomas other than PNET/ES.
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17/665. Efficacy of total androgen blockade in metastatic prostatic carcinoma with transient hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a case report.

    A patient affected by metastatic prostatic carcinoma and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) was treated with flutamide 750 mg/day plus an LH-RH analog. After confirmation of basal castration during treatment, he continued with antiandrogens alone. Following the normalization of gonadic function and subjective mild bone flare-up, the patient resumed the initial treatment and obtained a partial response. When flutamide was interrupted because of liver toxicity, the patient showed progressive disease in the bone, which was unresponsive to both flutamide resumption and salvage hormone therapy (bicalutamide). The patient is currently receiving chemotherapy with VP16 and estramustine phosphate and is showing both serologic (PSA) and symptomatic response. The interest of this case lies in the incidental detection of HH during therapy and in the responsiveness to treatment.
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18/665. brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma after radical hepatectomy.

    brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare, yet perplexing problem in patients with cancer. We report on 5 patients with metastasis of HCC to the brain after radical hepatectomy. Intrahepatic recurrence occurred in 3 patients, and distant metastasis to sites other than the brain was observed in 3 patients (lung, 2; bone, 1). The symptoms for brain metastasis included headache, hemiparesis, and vomiting. hemorrhage was found in 4 of 5 patients. All patients had a single nodular lesion in the brain. The alpha-fetoprotein levels were more than 10,000 ng/ml in 4 patients. Two patients underwent surgical resection, 1 received cranial irradiation, and 2 were administered corticosteroids. The interval between diagnosis of the primary cancer and detection of brain metastasis ranged from 2 to 54 months. The mean survival period was only 3 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. All 5 patients died of neurologic causes. Because no effective treatment for brain metastasis from HCC is available, further study is needed.
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19/665. High-activity samarium-153-EDTMP therapy in unresectable osteosarcoma.

    Despite highly efficacious chemotherapy, patients with osteosarcomas still have a poor prognosis if adequate surgical control cannot be obtained. We applied high-activity Sm-153-EDTMP therapy within a multimodal therapy concept to improve local control of an unresectable osteosarcoma with poor response to initial polychemotherapy. A 21-year-old woman with an extended, unresectable pelvic osteosarcoma and multiple pulmonary metastases was treated with high-activity of Sm-153- EDTMP (150 MBq/kg BW, total 8.1 GBq). Afterwards external radiotherapy of the primary tumor site was performed and polychemotherapy was continued, followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell reinfusion. Within 48 h after Sm-153-EDTMP application the patient had complete pain relief. After three weeks the response was documented by 3-phase Tc-99m-MDP bone scintigraphy (primary tumor and metastases: decreased tracer uptake), whole-body F-18-FDG-PET (primary tumor and metastases: diminution of glucose metabolism) and thoracic CT (metastases: reduction of size). The present case warrants further evaluation of feasibility and efficacy of this multimodal therapy combination of high-activity Sm-153-EDTMP therapy, external radiation, polychemotherapy and stem cell support for unresectable osteosarcomas.
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20/665. Hypotetraploidy in a patient with small cell carcinoma.

    While numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities characterize many hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic malignancies, the occurrence of polyploidy is by and large rare. We report here an interesting patient with small cell carcinoma (SCC) and hypotetraploidy initially referred to us because of a question of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, M3 subtype, with a question of a 15;17 translocation characteristic of acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the patient did not have a 15;17 translocation and the final hematopathologic analysis of the bone marrow aspirates and immunohistochemistry studies subsequently revealed the patient to have SCC. Small cell carcinoma is a highly malignant and a very aggressive neoplasm. A review of the literature, using medline, Cancerlit, and the science Citation Index, revealed that in most, if not all, reports, the presence of polyploidy is noted as a rare entity. In leukemia, reports of polyploidy point to a distinct category of patients with a poor risk for which more intensive treatment is needed. Limited information is currently available to assess the risk of polyploidy in small cell carcinoma. Our case is important not only because of the relative rarity of polyploidy, but also because insights gained from the study of this and other similar patients may help shed additional light on the mechanism of carcinogenesis, which is not fully known to date. As polyploidization is a manifestation of genetic instability and as genetic instability has been implicated in the genesis and progression of many cancers, it is perhaps not too surprising that polyploidy in our case was associated with a poor disease outcome. The patient has since expired.
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