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1/6. Liver dysfunction due to apoptosis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    We report on a 23-year-old Japanese female with a 13-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and two episodes of deterioration followed by treatment with high dose prednisolone. Although she had been recently treated with prednisolone (12.5 mg daily), her liver function became worse in July 1998. Results of a liver biopsy revealed multi-focal hepatic cell death in a severe fatty liver, without any inflammatory cell invasion. The biopsy also showed a positive TUNEL (Tdt-catalysed DNA nick end labelling) reaction indicating apoptosis. Her liver function recovered rapidly following steroid pulse therapy. serum soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) was found to be elevated to a concentration of 0.395 ng/ml at the time of liver damage, but was less than 0.03 ng/ml before liver damage and after prednisolone treatment. The liver damage in this case appeared to be involved with apoptosis induced by sFasL. Although hepatitis associated with SLE is rare, apoptosis directly related to elevated sFasL levels might cause this complication.
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keywords = apoptosis
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2/6. Diminished expression of CD59 on activated CD8 T cells undergoing apoptosis in systemic lupus erythematosus and sjogren's syndrome.

    The present study was undertaken to examine the phenotype of T cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis in patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary sjogren's syndrome (SS). Compared with normal controls, we found diminished expression of CD59 antigen (one of the cell-surface complement-regulatory proteins) on CD8 T cells, but not on CD4 T cells, from patients with SLE and SS. Three-colour immunofluorescence analysis revealed that these CD59dim CD8 T cells were activated T cells, expressing both human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and CD45RO antigens. In addition, these CD59dim CD8 T cells were more susceptible to in vitro apoptosis than CD59bright CD8 T cells. In two patients with active lupus, the percentage of CD59dim CD8 T cells was significantly decreased after steroid therapy. These findings suggest that decreased expression of CD59 antigen on in vivo-activated CD8 T cells may be correlated with disease activity and may be involved in activation-induced apoptosis in patients with SLE and SS.
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keywords = apoptosis
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3/6. Systemic lupus erythematosus and B-cell hematologic neoplasm.

    The association of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and B-cell malignancy is widely reported in the literature. Here we report nine cases of concurrent of SLE or discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and lymphoma or plasma cell disorder. A medline search was done using the keywords, 'SLE' and 'lymphoma' and the characteristics of all identified cases were summarized and analyzed, along with data from our own cases. Numerous variants of B-cell malignancies were encountered in these patients. B-cell malignancy occurs after the diagnosis and treatment of SLE in most reported cases, although it may precede SLE, or occur synchronously with it. The age at onset of the B-cell neoplasm in SLE patients is similar to that in the general population. mortality in patients with both diseases is associated with progressive B-cell neoplasm, sepsis secondary to either disease, or both. B-cell malignancy and SLE seem to run independent clinical courses rather than being affected by each other. The use of immunosuppressive drugs is common in patients with SLE diagnosed prior to B-cell lymphoma, arguing that the effect of immunosuppression on the pathogenesis of lymphoma can not be excluded. Three areas worthy of study regarding the probable mechanisms for the occurrence of SLE and B-cell malignancies are discussed. A tumor suppressor gene PTEN may link the two disorders via a defective apoptosis pathway to eliminate hyperactive B and T cells in SLE. The accumulation of clonally expanded hyperactive B-cells that recognize self-antigens in the lymph nodes of SLE may predispose these B-cells to dna breaks, facilitating tumorigenesis. Lastly, EBV infection, found to have a high prevalence in SLE patients, may serve as a common etiological factor in both disorders.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = apoptosis
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4/6. endocardial fibroelastosis associated with maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies in the absence of atrioventricular block.

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to document the association of endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and maternal autoantibodies. BACKGROUND: Neonatal lupus erythematosus is associated with the transplacental passage of maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, leading to complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). In some cases, CAVB is associated with EFE. Isolated EFE may be independently related to maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies. methods: We identified three cases (one fetus and two infants, all female) of isolated EFE in infants born to autoantibody-positive mothers in the absence of CAVB. Demographics, echocardiograms, and pathology were reviewed. Immunohistochemical analyses for immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgM, IgA, T-cell, B-cell, and terminal deoxynucleoleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) (test for cell apoptosis) staining were performed on multiple sections of the heart in each case and compared with negative controls. RESULTS: Two cases died and one received a cardiac transplant. All three cases had histologically confirmed EFE. All cases demonstrated significant diffuse IgG infiltration. To a lesser extent, myocardial tissue was also positive for IgM, CD43, and Granzyme B. None of the specimens were TUNEL positive. CONCLUSIONS: These are the first reported cases of isolated EFE associated with maternal anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies in the absence of CAVB. The diffuse deposition of IgG and the presence of a T-cell infiltrate throughout the myocardium suggest that the transplacental passage of maternal autoantibodies induces an immune reaction within the myocardium, leading to isolated EFE. Autoantibody-mediated EFE may be an etiologic factor in cases of fetal and neonatal "idiopathic" dilated cardiomyopathy.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = apoptosis
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5/6. Gene profiling involved in immature CD4 T lymphocyte responsible for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    We attempted to characterize the genes expression of CD4 T lymphocytes for the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Genomewide gene expression profiles of CD4 T cells, which were isolated from the disease severe activity (T4-1s) and nonactivity (T4-2s) with an SLE patient by using long serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE). We picked out 289 genes matching to Unigene cluster with different expression more than four copies between T4-1s and T4-2s libraries and analyzed their roles from the collectedly published articles of pubmed by genes functional clustering. The genes functions were related to a diverse cellular process including: (1) most of these genes were associated with CD4 T cells functions, particularly related to cellular developments; (2) Ras pathway genes as RANBP10, GMIP, RASGRP2 and ARL5 might be responsible for the abnormal development of CD4 T cells of SLE; (3) HIG2, TCF7, KHSRP, WWP1, SMAD3, TLK2, AES, CCNI and PIM2 belong to Wnt/beta-catenin way, they could play roles in modulating proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes; (4) uncertain viral infections may initiate autoimmunity because high levels expression genes were detected in T4-1s such as TRIM22, IER2, ABCE1, DUT, G1P2, G1P3, HNRPUL1, EVER2, IFNAR1, TNFSF14, TMP21 and PVRL2; and (5) apoptosis relating genes as EIF3S8, SH3BGRL3, GPX4, TOSO, PFDN5, BIN1, XIAPAF1, TEGT and CUGBP2 may contribute to over uploading of selfantigens in SLE cells. Abnormalities findings of multiple genes expression involving with a variety of CD4 T cells process might be meaningful to understanding the pathogenesis of SLE, and immature CD4 T cells may be responsible for SLE.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = apoptosis
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6/6. Fas ligand mutation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and lymphoproliferative disease.

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is multifactorial and multigenetic. The apoptosis genes, fas and fas ligand (fasL), are candidate contributory genes in human SLE, as mutations of these genes result in autoimmunity in several murine models of this disease. In humans, fas mutations result in a familial autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, but defects in FasL have not yet been identified. In this study, DNA from 75 patients with SLE was screened by single-stranded conformational polymorphism analysis for potential mutations of the extracellular domain of FasL. A heterozygous single-stranded conformational polymorphism for FasL, was identified in one SLE patient, who exhibited lymphadenopathy. Molecular cloning and sequencing indicated that the genomic DNA of this patient contained an 84-bp deletion within exon 4 of the fasL gene, resulting in a predicted 28 amino acid in-frame deletion. Analysis of PBMC from this patient revealed decreased FasL activity, decreased activation-induced cell death, and increased T cell proliferation after activation. This is the first report of defective FasL-mediated apoptosis related to a mutation of the human Fasl, gene in a patient with SLE and suggests that fasL mutations are an uncommon cause of the disease.
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ranking = 0.28571428571429
keywords = apoptosis
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