Cases reported "Lupus Nephritis"

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1/6. Cryosupernatant plasma exchange in the treatment of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with lupus nephritis.

    We report a case of a 22-year-old female with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in whom cryosupernatant plasma exchange was effective and improved both the refractory venous thrombosis in her legs and relapsing thrombocytopenia. A renal biopsy specimen showed not only features of active lupus nephritis but also renal arteriolar thrombosis which is considered to be a type of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Because a pathological role of unusually large von willebrand factor (vWF) multimers has been reported in patients with TMA including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, plasma exchange using replacement with cryosupernatant, which is free of unusually large vWF multimers, is likely to be an option of treatment modality for patients with refractory and chronic relapsing APS manifesting TMA.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microangiopathy
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2/6. "Pauci-Immune" proliferative and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus-like syndrome.

    In the glomerulonephritides of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the number of subendothelial deposits, when present, generally corresponds to the degree of light microscopic glomerular hypercellularity; only very rarely are no or few such deposits present in cases of focal (WHO class III) or diffuse (WHO class IV) proliferative lupus nephritis. We have recently encountered five cases of active diffuse proliferative glomerlonephritis with no subendothelial and few or no mesangial deposits and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in four patients with SLE and one patient with lupus-like syndrome. Three of the five patients were tested for circulating lupus anticoagulants or anticardiolipin antibodies, and two were positive. All five patients tested negatively for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Three patients responded to steroid and cyclophosphamide treatment, although one of them died of acute bacterial bronchopneumonia. One patient was lost to follow-up. We conclude that "pauci-immune" proliferative lupus nephritis is rare and should be treated as proliferative lupus nephritis with a proportionate number of subendothelial deposits. The negative ANCA suggests that these cases do not represent incidental ANCA-associated pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis in patients with SLE. Of particular interest is that, in patients with SLE, if associated with TMA, an active proliferative necrotizing glomerulonephritis may be present even in the absence of significant glomerular immune complex deposition.
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ranking = 5
keywords = microangiopathy
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3/6. cyclosporine and tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    The development of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) associated with the use of cyclosporine has been well documented. Treatments have included discontinuation or reduction of cyclosporine dose with or without concurrent plasma exchange, plasma infusion, anticoagulation, and intravenous immunoglobulin g infusion. However, for recipients of organ transplantation, removing the inciting agent is not without the attendant risk of precipitating acute rejection and graft loss. The last decade has seen the emergence of tacrolimus as a potent immunosuppressive agent with mechanisms of action virtually identical to those of cyclosporine. As a result, switching to tacrolimus has been reported to be a viable therapeutic option in the setting of cyclosporine-induced TMA. With the more widespread application of tacrolimus in organ transplantation, tacrolimus-associated TMA has also been recognized. However, literature regarding the incidence of the recurrence of TMA in patients exposed sequentially to cyclosporine and tacrolimus is limited. We report a case of a living donor renal transplant recipient who developed cyclosporine-induced TMA that responded to the withdrawal of cyclosporine in conjunction with plasmapheresis and fresh frozen plasma replacement therapy. Introduction of tacrolimus as an alternative immunosuppressive agent resulted in the recurrence of TMA and the subsequent loss of the renal allograft. patients who are switched from cyclosporine to tacrolimus or vice versa should be closely monitored for the signs and symptoms of recurrent TMA.
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ranking = 5
keywords = microangiopathy
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4/6. IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus in SLE nephritis: viral infection or aspecific autoantibody?

    Despite many studies on the subject, the causal relationships between viruses and presentation/exacerbation of autoimmune diseases are still elusive. The possibility of false positive IgM antibody tests for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been pointed out. Here we report a case of a patient who developed lupus nephritis, with biochemical and clinical markers of CMV infection with intestinal involvement. At first, the antibodies to CMV were regarded as spurious aspecific signs of autoimmune disease. The patient had had serious flare-ups of the disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome with thrombotic microangiopathy superimposed on SLE nephritis, and life-threatening infections for three years until CMV infection was confirmed by the persistence of anti-CMV IgM-antibodies coupled with positive results of tests for viral replication. After therapy with ganciclovir, his clinical and biochemical condition improved and remained stable for three years, with only very low maintenance steroid coupled with hydroxychloroquine. IgM anti-CMV were no longer detectable in spite of the persistence of other autoantibodies such as anti-dna and ANA. Keeping in mind that CMV-IgM has been reported in only 5% of patients with SLE nephritis, the history of our patient indicates that CMV infection must be carefully excluded before IgM antibodies against CMV can be simply classified as an aspecific sign of cross-reacting autoantibodies formed in SLE patients.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microangiopathy
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5/6. Rapidly progressive lupus glomerulonephritis and concomitant microangiopathy in an adolescent.

    We describe our experience managing a 16-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented concomitantly with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and a thrombotic microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (TMAHA). Her renal biopsy showed evidence of diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis without glomerular microthrombi. The patient was treated with a combination of intravenous corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, as well as plasmapheresis, with an excellent response resulting in complete disease remission. The purpose of our report is to make health professionals more aware of TMAHA as a complication of SLE, since the occurrence of TMAHA may confuse the clinical picture, and since its treatment with plasmapheresis is life saving, if performed early.
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ranking = 4
keywords = microangiopathy
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6/6. A 31-year-old woman with lupus erythematosus and fatal multisystem complications.

    A 31-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with respiratory and renal symptoms followed by abdominal pain and seizure. Clinical diagnoses of lupus pneumonitis, nephritis, vasculitis, and cerebritis were made. The patient had a progressively downhill course with pancytopenia and hemolysis treated with aggressive immunosuppressive therapy and extended plasmapheresis. Lupus pneumonitis leading to diffuse alveolar damage was the immediate cause of death. Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis was seen in the biopsy, and the autopsy demonstrated thrombotic microangiopathy. Extra-renal complications of lupus and response to therapy are discussed in the format of a Tulane Clinicopathologic Conference.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microangiopathy
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