Cases reported "Lyme Disease"

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1/73. Diaphragmatic paralysis due to lyme disease.

    lyme disease is a tick-borne spirochaete infection which, in a proportion of patients, can lead to neuropathy. This article describes a case of diaphragmatic paralysis due to lyme disease. A 39-yr-old male presented to the hospital because of an acute left facial palsy. Six weeks prior to admission he had developed a circular rash on his left flank during a camping holiday. He also complained of shortness of breath and arthralgia for 1 week. His chest radiograph demonstrated a raised right hemi-diaphragm. Diaphragmatic paralysis was confirmed by fluoroscopy (a positive sniff test). serology revealed evidence of recent infection by borrelia burgdorferi. On the basis of the patient's clinical presentation, a recent history of erythema migrans, and positive Lyme serology, a diagnosis of neuroborreliosis was made. He received oral doxycycline therapy (200 mg x day(-1)) for three weeks. Facial and diaphragmatic palsies resolved within eight weeks. On the basis of this case, a diagnosis of lyme disease should be considered in patients from endemic regions with otherwise unexplained phrenic nerve palsy.
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2/73. central nervous system infection caused by borrelia burgdorferi. Clinico-pathological correlation of three post-mortem cases.

    The spirochete borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) may cause severe meningoencephalomyelitis as the sole manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. We would like to present three such cases, where definite neuroborreliosis was clinically diagnosed in two cases and possible neuroborreliosis was recognized in one case. Alive spirochetes were isolated and cultured from blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in both definite cases. B. burgdorferi as the causative agent of the infection was confirmed in CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in one definite case. In the possible case spirochetes were cultured from blood and CSF. Alive spirochetes were not isolated, however anti-B. burgdorferi antibody value in serum was significantly elevated. On necropsy gross examination brain edema without focal changes was detected in two cases. Cerebral atrophy was seen in Case 3. Microscopically, lymphocytic infiltrates, microglial diffuse and nodular activation, spongiform changes, diffuse demyelination of the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, and diffuse astrocytosis, were characteristic pathological features in all presented cases. Multifocal, perivascular degenerative changes in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter were observed in the first case. Inflammatory changes in the nuclei and roots of cranial nerves were present in the third case.
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3/73. Lyme carditis: complete AV dissociation with episodic asystole presenting as syncope in the emergency department.

    We report a case of Lyme carditis in an otherwise-healthy young male who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with syncope and a possible seizure. This patient, without documented history of lyme disease, acutely developed third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with episodic asystole, which required placement of a transvenous pacemaker in the ED and resolved only after the patient had been placed on ceftriaxone. We discuss the significance of Lyme carditis and its increasing prevalence, and review the current literature. We also recommend appropriate screening modalities for patients with known lyme disease, or an atypical profile for cardiac abnormalities.
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ranking = 13.321408841476
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4/73. Frightening dreams and spells: a case of ventricular asystole from lyme disease.

    We present a case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a febrile illness, frightening dreams and repeated short episodes of apparent seizure activity. Third degree heart block and ventricular asystole were noted on the monitor when the patient experienced a spell during conscious sedation for a lumbar puncture. The combination of heart block and a predominantly lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis of lyme disease. Lyme titres were strongly positive and subsequently confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Cardiac aetiologies and specifically heart block associated with lyme disease should be considered in patients from endemic areas presenting with fever and unexplained spells or seizure-like activity.
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5/73. borrelia burgdorferi as a cause of Morgagni-adams-stokes syndrome. Long time follow-up study.

    According the literature atrio-ventricular blockade (AVB) is the most frequent and well-known symptom of Lyme carditis. Typical signs of complete AVB include fatigue, lethargy and syncope- Morgagni-adams-stokes syndrome (MAS). The authors present their results and experience with 5 patients selected from a long-term study (conducted between 1987 and 1998) comprising 58 patients who developed MAS. The authors tried to evaluate the changes especially in the cardiovascular system. They correlated the clinical state with ECG findings, as well as with the levels of the borrelia burgdorferi antibodies. The following results were obtained: 1) all patients had typical syncope, 2) the clinical course was not complicated (except one patient who developed ventricular fibrillation), 3) two patients had frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic arrhythmia including chest pain and episodic rest dyspnea, 4) subjective difficulties (usually palpitations) correlated with ECG findings (Lown 3a, 3b). The authors also looked for any relationship between clinical difficulties and levels of antibodies. The results obtained with an early permanent pacemaker were less favourable than those reported in the literature. Despite early treatment 2 patients had repeated palpitations and ECG correlates during the next years.
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ranking = 13.321408841476
keywords = block
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6/73. Isolated neuritis of the sciatic nerve in a case of lyme disease.

    lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the spirochete borrelia burgdorferi. The course of the disease is divided into three stages, the second of which may include various types of peripheral nervous system disturbances. We report the case of a patient with persistent deficits caused by the prevalent involvement of the sciatic nerve, confirmed by electrophysiological and neuropathological findings. The most significant bioptic results were axonal degeneration and perivascular inflammation. Damage to a single peripheral nerve as the dominant clinical expression during the course of lyme disease is an unusual finding that has been rarely described in the literature.
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7/73. paraneoplastic polyneuropathy preceding the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease and non-small cell lung cancer in a patient with concomitant borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    A patient with painful peripheral neuropathy is presented, whose symptoms were thought to result from an infection with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Investigations of the cerebrospinal fluid for signs of inflammation and borrelial antibodies were negative, and the patient did not benefit from repeated antibiotic treatment. Electrophysiologic studies and sural nerve biopsy showed axonal neuropathy consistent with a paraneoplastic syndrome. Further workup revealed mediastinal Hodgkin's disease (HD; nodular sclerosing subtype) Ann Arbor stage II and non-small cell cancer of the lung (stage T1N0M0). Surgical resection of the lung cancer and combined chemo- and radiotherapy for HD resulted in complete remission of both malignancies. While the preexisting neurologic symptoms persisted during treatment, neurography showed some improvement of the distal nerves. During radiation therapy the patient developed transient left-sided brachial plexopathy. This case illustrates that the diagnosis of borreliosis in patients with isolated painful peripheral neuritis cannot be based solely upon positive IgG titers and supports the requirement for a thorough workup for an underlying--potentially curable--disease. In addition, singular pulmonary lesions in the setting of HD should be suspected to have a separate cause.
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8/73. Optic neuropathy in children with lyme disease.

    Involvement of the optic nerve, either because of inflammation or increased intracranial pressure, is a rare manifestation of lyme disease. Of the 4 children reported here with optic nerve abnormalities, 2 had decreased vision months after disease onset attributable to optic neuritis, and 1 had headache and diplopia early in the infection because of increased intracranial pressure associated with Lyme meningitis. In these 3 children, optic nerve involvement responded well to intravenous ceftriaxone therapy. The fourth child had headache and visual loss attributable to increased intracranial pressure and perhaps also to optic neuritis. Despite treatment with ceftriaxone and steroids, he had persistent increased intracranial pressure leading to permanent bilateral blindness. Clinicians should be aware that neuro-ophthalmologic involvement of lyme disease may have significant consequences. If increased intracranial pressure persists despite antibiotic therapy, measures must be taken quickly to reduce the pressure.
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9/73. Acute onset of facial nerve palsy associated with lyme disease in a 6 year-old child.

    Pediatric facial nerve palsy (FNP) can result from a variety of etiologies including lyme disease, varicella, primary gingivostomatitis, herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome), coxsackievirus, trauma, otitis media, hiv, diseases causing tumors or demyelinations, compressions, and possibly Epstein Barr virus. lyme disease has been implicated as the cause of over 50% of the FNPs in children. The paralysis of the facial nerve disturbs motor function to the muscles of facial expression and results in a flaccid appearance of the face (unilateral or bilateral). This case report derails undiagnosed lyme disease presenting as a facial palsy in a 6 year, 5 month-old white female. The palsy was recognized and consultation with the child's physician prompted definitive diagnosis and treatment. A review of the literature and the implications of facial nerve palsy are discussed.
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10/73. Complete heart block due to lyme carditis.

    Lyme carditis is becoming a more frequent complication of lyme disease, primarily due to the increasing incidence of this disease in the united states. Cardiovascular manifestations of lyme disease often occur within 21 days of exposure and include fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular (AV) block, acute myopericarditis or mild left ventricular dysfunction and rarely cardiomegaly or fatal pericarditis. AV block can vary from first-, second-, third-degree heart block, to junctional rhythm and asystolic pauses. patients with suspected or known lyme disease presenting with cardiac symptoms, or patients in an endemic area presenting with cardiac symptoms with no other cardiac risk factors should have a screening electrocardiogram along with Lyme titers. We present a case of third-degree AV block due to Lyme carditis, illustrating one of the cardiac complications of lyme disease. This disease is usually self-limiting when treated appropriately with antibiotics, and does not require permanent cardiac pacing.
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