Cases reported "Lymphatic Diseases"

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1/71. Distensible venous malformations of the orbit: clinical and hemodynamic features and a new technique of management.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate distensible venous malformations of the orbit (DVMO) as part of a spectrum of orbital vascular malformations, including some that involved periorbital skin, extraorbital sites (central nervous system or nasal sinuses), or combinations of these. The authors also investigated the effectiveness of a new technique of management for selected cases. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients had distensible venous anomalies, of which four were combined distensible venous-lymphatic vascular malformations. Distensible lesions were defined as those showing clinical or radiographic expansion with valsalva maneuver or when the head was placed in a dependent position. These lesions were then classified as superficial (anterior to the equator of the globe), deep (posterior to the globe's equator), combined (deep and superficial), or complex (with intracranial or major extraorbital involvement). INTERVENTION: Surgery was performed on 15 patients (50%), mainly for pain or for cosmetic indications. Six patients underwent this new technique, which involved intraoperative direct venography with control of outflow via pressure at the superior or inferior orbital fissure. The venous malformation was then embolized (by use of cyanoacrylate glue) and excised. RESULTS: The mean age at presentation was 28.2 years (range, 8 months to 75 years). Sixty-six percent of cases involved the left orbit. Superior and medial orbital involvement was most common. Three cases (10%) were classified as superficial, and 13 (43%) as deep. Six patients (20%) had combined superficial and deep components. Eight (27%) had major extraorbital involvement (4 intracranial, 2 facial, and 2 paranasal sinus). Direct venography demonstrated complex multichannel anomalies draining to various sites, including the face and pterygopalatine fossa, without necessarily having a direct connection to the major orbital venous circulation. CONCLUSIONS: Distensible venous malformations of the orbit are part of a spectrum of developmental venous malformations that may be localized to the orbit or involve it as part of a more extensive lesion. The authors describe their clinical and radiologic features and report a new technique of management for selected cases. This method of vascular isolation and embolization of lesions may greatly facilitate excision.
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2/71. Primary sjogren's syndrome with severe central nervous system disease.

    OBJECTIVE: central nervous system (CNS) involvement in primary sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is controversial with regard to frequency, significance, and etiology. methods: We describe a young woman with pSS and severe CNS disease and review the literature on the pathophysiology, clinical significance, symptoms, diagnostic examinations, and treatment of CNS disease with concomitant pSS (CNS-SS). RESULTS: Our patient with pSS had a 5-month history of benign lymphadenopathy and myositis, after which she developed severe CNS disease, vasculitic lesions on her hands, and a neurogenic bladder attributable to spinal cord involvement. The diagnosis was based on the clinical picture and the results of a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan, electroencephalography (EEG), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. The disease did not respond to corticosteroids, but the administration of cyclophosphamide resulted in recovery. In the literature, the incidence of CNS-SS varies widely, from rare to incidence rates of 20% to 25%. The clinical picture is diverse, ranging from mild cognitive symptoms to fatal cerebrovascular accidents. The pathophysiology of CNS-SS is unclear, specific diagnostic methods are not available, and diagnosis is based on the clinical picture and a combination of examinations. MRI is the most sensitive test and cerebral angiography the most specific. CSF reflects involvement of the leptomeninges, and EEG is nonspecific. There are no controlled studies of the treatment of CNS-SS. Regimens for vasculitis are commonly used. CONCLUSIONS: CNS-SS is uncommonly recognized and difficult to diagnose. Increasingly accurate and available diagnostic examinations will yield more information about the association of CNS disease with pSS.
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3/71. E rosettes in lymphoproliferative diseases.

    Results are given of investigations of E rosettes in patients with chronic lymphadenosis and malignant lymphoma. The quantity of E rosettes was expressed both as per cents and in absolute numbers calculated from the total amount of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In the normal controls the percentage of E rosettes was 58% on average while in patients with chronic lymphadenosis it was found to have decreased significantly down to a mean of 6%. However, in absolute values the number of rosette forming lymphocytes was normal and even higher. In the group with malignant lymphoma the percentage decrease was less striking than in those with chronic lymphadenosis, however, the absolute number of rosette forming lymphocytes was always found to be lowered because of evident to considerable lymphopenia. A dynamic study of the observed changes might contribute to a knowledge of the pathophysiology of lymphoproliferative diseases.
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4/71. Resolution of tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia after supratentorial tumor resection: case report and review of the literature.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: The pathophysiological features of syringomyelia are not yet entirely understood. We present a case of a supratentorial mass causing tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old woman underwent magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of progressive headaches. A large parieto-occipital mass was revealed. Herniation of the cerebellar tonsils and a cervical syrinx were also noted. INTERVENTION: A craniotomy was performed without incident. After tumor resection, the tonsils ascended and the syrinx resolved in a 1-year period. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of tonsillar herniation in the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. "Acquired" Chiari malformations and syringomyelia attributable to supratentorial masses may be treated by mass resection alone, without the need for foramen magnum decompression.
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5/71. skin manifestations of a case of phenylbutazone-induced serum sickness-like reactions.

    serum sickness consists of a systemic reaction resulting from the formation of soluble circulating immunocomplexes after the introduction of a foreign substance into the body We studied a 38-year-old woman diagnosed with anxiety, depression and right sacroileitis who was treated with phenylbutazone, ranitidine, clomipramine and levomepromazine. After taking this treatment for 1 month, she presented with fever, diarrhea, localized edemas, generalized pruritic papular and erythematous rash and lymphadenopathies. She presented the same symptoms after oral intake of metamizole. The diagnosis was confirmed following a single-blind, placebo-controlled provocation test with phenylbutazone and a biopsy of the affected skin.
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6/71. indomethacin induced bulky lymphadenopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia.

    indomethacin is one of the most popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Although NSAID occasionally provoke bronchospasm and hypersensitivity pneumonia, they seldom cause lymphadenopathy. This is the first report in which NSAID induced both eosinophilic pneumonia and bulky intrathoracic lymphadenopathy simultaneously. A 76-year-old Japanese man experienced high fever and dyspnoea after using an indomethacin suppository. Computed tomography scan of his chest revealed massive mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy along with diffuse infiltration in both lungs. He was diagnosed to have eosinophilic pneumonia because of eosinophilia in his peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Without using glucocorticoids, the pulmonary infiltration and lymphadenopathy subsided spontaneously. As the blastoid transformation test using the lymphocytes in his BALF was positive to indomethacin, we judged that both his eosinophilic pneumonia and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were due to a hypersensitivity reaction to indomethacin. An allergic reaction to NSAID should be considered as a rare cause of mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
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7/71. Postmenarchal development of chylous ascites in acrocephalosyndactyly with congenital lymphatic dysplasia.

    BACKGROUND: Acrocephalosyndactyly is a syndrome characterized by congenital malformation of the skull with craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, and symmetrical webbed fusion of the fingers and toes. We describe a possible pathophysiologic mechanism for chylous ascites that developed several months after menarche in a woman with acrocephalosyndactyly and congenital lymphatic dysplasia. CASE: A 25-year-old nulligravid woman with acrocephalosyndactyly, at 18 months after menarche, developed persistent abdominal distension at age 18 years. laparoscopy at age 25 years revealed chylous ascites with marked chronic peritoneal inflammation, and lymphatic dysplasia with lymphocysts. With hormone manipulation, the chylous ascites fluctuated. CONCLUSION: After menarche in a woman with acrocephalosyndactyly, ovarian steroid hormones might have increased lymph production and hydrostatic pressure, causing rupture of congenitally dysplastic lymph vessels resulting in chylous ascites.
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8/71. Recurrent cervical abscess: life-threatening presentation of chronic granulomatous disease in twin infants.

    Non-identical male twins presented at 12 and 13 weeks of life, respectively, with recurrent cervical abscesses and signs of imminent upper-airway obstruction (UAO). Despite adequate initial surgical drainage, airway patency became seriously jeopardised in both cases by recurrent abscess formation requiring further intervention. Chronic granulomatous disease was eventually diagnosed in both cases. The unusual presentation of this rare condition with life-threatening UAO in twin infants, a scenario not previously described, is reported and a management protocol suggested.
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9/71. Vascular transformation of lymph node sinuses.

    Vascular transformation of lymph node sinuses is an uncommon condition and only isolated cases have been reported. It is characterized by conversion of nodal sinuses into capillary-like channels, often accompanied by fibrosis. Venous or lymphatic obstruction is thought to be the underlying mechanism, and in most cases factors that may contribute to lymphovascular obstruction can be identified such as tumour in the vicinity, vascular thrombosis, heart failure, previous surgery or radiotherapy. Most cases involve abdominal lymph nodes, and head and neck involvement is rare. We present two cases of vascular transformation of lymph node sinuses presenting only as cervical lymphadenopathy, without an obvious cause of lymphovascular obstruction.
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10/71. Chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease expressing natural killer cell receptors: clinicopathological and molecular features.

    The frequency and clinicopathological significance of the expression of natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) in T-cell malignancies remain undefined. A 71-year-old man presented with leukocytosis, generalized lymphoadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. bone marrow and lymph node biopsies showed a T-cell lymphoproliferative disease expressing NKRs (CD2( ), CD3( ), CD4( ), CD5( ), CD7( ), CD8(-), CD56(-), CD94( ), CD158a( ), CD158b( ), CD161(-), p70(-), TCRalphabeta(1), TCRgammadelta(2), TIA-1(-)). An abnormal clone, 46,Y,add(X)(p14),der(1)t(1;6)(p33;p21),t(7;12)(p10;q10), was found on conventional karyotyping. comparative genomic hybridization confirmed these findings, and showed a deletion of 12p that was not apparent on karyotyping. Clinically, the disease remained indolent and responded transiently to purine analogs but not to intensive chemotherapy. Peripheral T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of CD4( )alphabeta(1)NKR( ) phenotype is hitherto undescribed. The issues of whether this case was derived from transformation of a rare T-cell subtype or represented aberrant T-cell expression of NK-cell antigens, and the clinicopathologic significance of these T-cell neoplasms warrant further studies.
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