Cases reported "Lymphatic Metastasis"

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1/26. paraganglioma as a systemic syndrome: pitfalls and strategies.

    Tumours of the neuroendocrine system in the head and neck region are mostly paragangliomas of the glomus tympanicum or jugulare, or of the carotid body. The majority of these tumours are benign, and the coexistence of multiple paragangliomas seems to be rare. Pre-operative embolization and surgery are regarded as primary therapy for these tumours. The treatment regimen in any patient depends on age, general health, hearing status and the function of the lower cranial nerves. Several presentations are possible in which paragangliomas occur as systemic disease. 1. Paragangliomas may occur bilaterally, or, in rare cases, in multiple areas. Pre-operative bilateral angiography is of utmost importance. In case of multicentricity, it might be necessary to proceed without, or just with, unilateral surgery for preservation of adjacent structures. In surgery of jugular vein paraganglioma, we usually perform a modified transmastoidal and transcervical approach with preservation of middle-ear structures and the ossicles. As an alternative or supplement to surgery, radiotherapy or definitive embolization may be used in the treatment of paragangliomas. 2. Paragangliomas may occur as multiple endocrine neoplasia (men) syndrome combined with medullary thyroid gland carcinoma, and, facultatively, pheochromocytoma. In these cases, endocrinological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal region, the thorax and the neck are required for an adequate therapeutic strategy. As men may be inherited, family history should be evaluated. 3. Paragangliomas can became malignant and metastasize. Thus, cervical lymph node metastases or distant metastases may occur. We recommend the removal of all ipsilateral lymph nodes and their histological examination.
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2/26. Imprint cytology from a childhood case of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    A 9-year-old girl with a history of a palpable multinodular hard mass in the right lobe of the thyroid gland was biopsied. On diagnosis of a papillary carcinoma, total thyroidectomy and right radical neck dissection were performed. Examination of frozen sections demonstrated metastasis in the right but not the left cervical lymph nodes. Imprint cytology revealed small papillary sheets of neoplastic cells with a high proportion of cytoplasmic inclusions and a few nuclear grooves. These nuclear details allowed a specific diagnosis of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Papillary thyroid carcinoma can be easily diagnosed by imprint cytology. In places such as small and country hospitals that do not have pathology laboratories, it can also be used successfully as an alternative to frozen section histology. The efficiency, simplicity and rapidity of this method make it a very useful procedure.
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3/26. Severe reversible bone marrow suppression induced by Selaginella doederleinii.

    Case Report: We report a 52-year-old female patient with cholangiocarcinoma who developed severe bone marrow suppression after taking Selaginella doederleinii as an alternative anticancer treatment. She developed severe pancytopenia with initial presentations of skin ecchymosis, itching, and gum bleeding 2 weeks after taking Selaginella doederleinii daily. bone marrow smear and biopsy showed severe hypocellularity with no malignant cell infiltration. Approximately 1 week after stopping Selaginella doederleinii, her hemogram returned to previous levels. Selaginella doederleinii, a popular anticancer herb, may contain an as yet unidentified substance that contributes to reversible bone marrow suppression.
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4/26. Left sided cervical and thoracic malignant extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    Extra-adrenal Pheochromocytomas are rare entities. High index of suspicion among diastolic hypertensives followed by screening test for 24-hour urinary catecholamine level helps in diagnosis. 123I MIBG scintigraphy is specific for tumour localisation and surgical debulking of tumour or 131I MIBG therapy are alternative modes of treatment.
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5/26. Raltitrexed (Tomudex): an alternative choice in patients intolerant to 5-fluorouracil.

    Raltitrexed (Tomudex), a classical folate antagonist, is a selective inhibitor of thymidylate synthase (TS). It has significant single-agent activity in metastatic colorectal cancer. Severe life-threatening toxicity related to the administration of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin is described in two patients, both of whom were not deficient in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. Raltitrexed was administered to both patients with clinically acceptable side effects and allowed a TS inhibitor to be administered as part of an adjuvant program.
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6/26. Recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma with unusual metastatic localization and excellent response to docetaxel and 5-FU continuous infusion.

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic gastric cancer is usually treated with cisplatin- and 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimens. There are good data for the combination regimen ECF (epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-FU), which is therefore often regarded as a reference treatment. Docetaxel shows promising activity against gastric cancer as single agent and in combinations. To develop a well-tolerable combination chemotherapy for an ambulant setting we initiated a randomized phase II study, comparing docetaxel and 5-FU continuous infusion (DF) with ECF. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old patient with the history of a curatively resected gastric cancer 2 years previously presented with abdominal masses and lesions in his spleen. histology proved metastases of gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with docetaxel (75 mg/m2, d1) and 5-FU continuous infusion (200 mg/m2/d, d1-21, q3w) within our study. Already after 2 cycles of chemotherapy he showed symptomatic improvement and partial remission of his tumor, which was confirmed after the 3rd cycle. In our ongoing study so far 50 patients are evaluable for response. Objective tumor response (CR PR) could be documented in 44% of patients in the DF arm as well as in the ECF arm. CONCLUSION: Docetaxel and 5-FU continuous infusion is an active regimen which could possibly be used as an alternative to established treatment protocols.
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7/26. Gemcitabine-induced vasculitis in advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine (GEM) is an alternative chemotherapeutic agent for patients with metastatic bladder cancer. It is believed to be a well-balanced agent, having acceptable toxicity and enhanced antitumor activity. The integration of GEM into the initial chemotherapy plan for these patients is still being developed. CASE REPORT: The patient, male, aged 56 years, was suffering from a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Due to frequent local superficial recurrences, radical cystectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and continent ileal diversion was performed. Four years after the operation a left inguinal lymphadenopathy was noted and metastatic bladder carcinoma was confirmed on biopsy. Cytotoxic therapy combining GEM and cisplatin and local external irradiation therapy was initiated. The patient developed extensive necrotising vasculitis with muscle damage after the second course of therapy. Chemotherapy was stopped immediately but this was not enough to relieve the symptoms of severe myalgia and swelling, and additional treatment consisting of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone was initiated. CONCLUSION: Although GEM seems to be relatively safe, some unexpected complications may occur during treatment. This case is not common, but it reinforces the need for careful attention to any new symptoms that seem to be unassociated with the primary disease. Prompt evaluation of such symptoms should be carried out in patients receiving GEM therapy.
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8/26. The "small, dark tonsil" in patients presenting with metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy from an unknown primary.

    When squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) involves the palatine tonsils, they are generally enlarged and demonstrate intermediate to high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and enhance after gadolinium administration. We have identified two patients with SCC of the tonsil where the affected tonsil has low signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images and is smaller than the contralateral normal tonsil. We present the "small, dark tonsil" as an alternative imaging presentation of SCC and a new sign to look for when evaluating the patient with metastatic lymphadenopathy from an unknown primary tumor.
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9/26. Gastric cancer after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures for morbid obesity. Several complications that may develop in the short- and long-term have been reported. We present a patient who presented with cancer in the bypassed stomach 8 years after RYGBP. Although the development of this lesion is rare and only a few cases have been reported, there are aspects worthy of discussion. Several monitoring, diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives are analyzed.
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10/26. Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.

    Occult breast cancer presenting with axillary lymph node metastases is uncommon, and inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), as a subtype, is quite rare. Here we describe a case of IBC, which arose as an unknown primary carcinoma; the patient presented with axillary lymph node metastasis, and was successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Specifically, a 55-year-old woman presented with right axillary lymphadenopathy. Although she underwent various examinations, the primary site of the disease was not revealed. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed, and the lesion was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient chose to be treated by alternative medicine. About 6 months later, she was referred to our hospital, due to marked bilateral neck and axillary lymph node swelling. She presented with diffuse right breast enlargement, redness, and peau d'orange. Computed tomography (CT) of the breast showed skin thickening and swelling of the right breast.F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed FDG uptake in the right breast. The patient was clinically diagnosed with IBC. Because overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was found in the specimen from her right axillary lymph node, she was treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Two months after the start of chemotherapy, CT revealed a complete response in the lymph nodes, and the skin thickening and parenchymal edema of the right breast had improved. FDG-PET was also performed at this time, and revealed no FDG uptake in either the right breast or the lymph nodes.
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