Cases reported "Lymphocytosis"

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1/46. The significance of lymphocytosis in congenital hypoplastic anemia.

    Two infants with congenital hypoplastic anemia had an unusual number of lymphocytes in their peripheral blood and in the bone marrow. This caused an erroneous diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia to be made in the first case and inappropriate therapy to be administered for three months. The second of these cases provided an unusual opportunity to study human erythrocyte precursor dynamics. Serial bone marrow aspirates, obtained after institution of treatment with a corticosteroid, revealed an initial increase in labeled lymphocytes, a concomitant decrease in their number, and the subsequent appearance of erythroid elements. These findings suggest that cells classified morphologically as lymphocytes may serve as erythroid precursors in human beings.
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2/46. Ocular and cerebral involvement in familial lymphohistiocytosis.

    A 5-month-old infant girl died of familial lymphohistiocytosis. The central nervous system showed widespread perivascular infiltration of the cerebral pia and arachnoid, the cerebral white matter and deep gray matter, the cerebellum, and brain stem by lymphocytes, benign appearing histiocytes, and macrophages with erythro-and lymphophagocytosis. The eyes had mild infiltration of the anterior uveal tract, moderate involvement of the inner retina, and marked infiltration of the optic nerves by identical cells.
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3/46. Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) following non-myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: a case report.

    We report here the first case of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) expansion following non-myeloablative allo-BMT for chronic myeloid leukemia. We characterized the morphologic, phenotypic and functional features of the LGL subset amplified in vivo 14 months after allo-BMT. Our results indicate that LGL can mediate in vitro a cytolytic activity on tumor cells. In vivo, the timing of the LGL expansion was associated with a sustained complete molecular remission. These observations suggest that LGL are a subset with the properties of effector lymphocytes which may contribute to the graft-versus-tumor effect.
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4/46. Leptomeningeal involvement in a patient with splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes.

    Splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) is an indolent hematological malignancy. Persistent lymphocytosis and splenomegaly usually last for years before patients develop infectious complications. Organ involvement other than spleen and bone marrow is rare in SLVL. We report a case of SLVL-related meningitis occurring in a patient presenting with altered mental status and seizures. CNS involvement was documented by an MRI of the head and by the presence of atypical lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Morphologic examination and immunophenotypic analyses were conducted to determine the nature of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, spleen, bone marrow and CSF. The patient improved after treatment with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
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5/46. Complete remission of tumour with interleukin 2 therapy in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma post allogeneic bone marrow transplant associated with polyclonal T-cell bone marrow lymphocytosis.

    A patient with low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who relapsed shortly after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) is reported. The patient was treated with interleukin 2 (IL-2), which resulted in a flare-up of graft-versus-host disease followed by disease control, with disappearance of peripheral lymphadenopathy. Sequential bone marrow testing showed the disappearance of bone marrow involvement with disease but occurrence of T-cell aggregates post IL-2 that were identified as polyclonal by molecular methods. The patient remains in complete remission 37 months following allogeneic BMT.
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keywords = bone
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6/46. Case report: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor overcomes severe neutropenia of large granular lymphocytosis.

    Large granular lymphocytosis (LGL) is characterized by enhanced proliferation of T lymphocytes that have antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or natural killer cell activity and that often produce severe cytopenias, including neutropenia. When a 68-year-old man with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and severe neutropenia was examined, he was found to have LGL with a T cell gene rearrangement, indicating the presence of a clonal population of T lymphocytes. The patient was admitted with a fever of 102 degrees F and a nonhealing ulcer over the right tibia. When the infection did not respond to intravenous antibiotics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) therapy was started at 5 micrograms/kg subcutaneously each day. The neutrophil count promptly increased and the patient subsequently defervesced and was able to have a skin graft placed, which healed without difficulty. GCSF, which is known to be an effective therapeutic agent for neutropenia associated with chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, also was a very valuable treatment for the life-threatening neutropenia of LGL.
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7/46. Large granular lymphocytosis terminating in a polymorphous B-lymphocytic proliferation after low-dose cyclophosphamide therapy: a case report with necropsy findings.

    A 70-year-old man presented with clonal large granular lymphocytosis of T-suppressor/cytotoxic immunophenotype, neutropenia, paraproteinemia, and proneness to infection. The patient became severely leukopenic during 14 days of chemotherapy with low-dose cyclophosphamide, and remained so after discontinuation of the drug. Clinically, he was thought to have prolonged chemotherapy-induced marrow hypoplasia. At death, 16 days after the last dose of chemotherapy, autopsy confirmed bone marrow hypoplasia and revealed that well-differentiated, polymorphous, and (immunophenotypically and genotypically) polyclonal b-lymphocytes predominated in normal hematopoietic and lymphoid organs. A similar lymphoid infiltrate was intimately associated with multiple ulcers and smooth muscle necrosis in the stomach. These terminal findings resemble B-lymphoproliferative conditions described in certain forms of immune deficiency.
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8/46. CD8 lymphocytosis and pseudotumoral splenomegaly in hiv infection.

    Three patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) presented with pseudotumoral splenomegaly, CD8 lymphocytosis (3.5-5.1 x 10(9)/l), and hypergammaglobulinaemia. spleen and bone marrow showed diffuse CD8 lymphocyte and plasma-cell infiltration. Amplification of the T-cell-receptor gamma chain gene did not reveal any clonal T-cell population. Phenotypic analysis showed a predominance of CD8/CD57 suppressor T cells with expression of activation markers (DR and CD38). No cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hiv could be detected. The three patients shared the HLA haplotype A1, B8, DR3. The association with this haplotype suggests a genetically determined host immune response to hiv.
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9/46. Extreme lymphoplasmacytosis and hepatic failure associated with sulfasalazine hypersensitivity reaction and a concurrent EBV infection--case report and review of the literature.

    We present an unusual case of a patient with extreme lymphoplasmacytosis and hepatic failure in association with a reaction to sulfasalazine and a concurrent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Sulfa drugs can cause a wide range of allergic and hypersensitivity reactions and occasionally can lead to a fulminant illness. In the case under discussion the patient had hepatotoxicity, skin rash, fever, and peripheral blood atypical lymphocytosis. Initial impressions suggested the possibility of a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder. flow cytometry of peripheral blood and a bone marrow biopsy provided clear evidence for a reactive, polyclonal process as opposed to a malignant disorder. Cessation of the offending drug and administration of steroids led to dramatic improvement. This case illustrates that drug hypersensitivity reactions can be manifested by an extreme lymphocytoid leukemoid reaction.
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10/46. Childhood polyclonal T cell lymphocytosis with neutropenia: effects of antilymphocyte globulin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in vitro and in vivo.

    The pathogenesis of the neutropenia that occurs in some patients with chronic T cell lymphocytosis is not well understood. We have investigated a 15-year-old girl with this syndrome. Initial committed bone marrow progenitor numbers (CFUgm) were low but markedly increased in vitro following T cell depletion. Similarly a transient correction of neutropenia was observed following in vivo lymphocyte depletion with antilymphocyte globulin. A sustained neutrophil recovery was achieved with daily therapy using recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) despite persistence of the lymphocytosis; during successful therapy CFUgm numbers remained low, and were not increased by the in vitro addition of rhG-CSF. These observations suggest the possibility of an inhibitory regulatory mechanism specifically acting on neutrophil granulopoiesis.
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