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11/22. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy associated with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    A 7-year-old female suddenly exhibited high fever and convulsions, and entered a semi-coma. She also had thrombocytopenia, elevated aminotransferase, prolonged prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, and hemophagocytes in the bone marrow. The brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple low-intensity areas on the T1-weighted images, and high-intensity areas on the T2-weighted images bilaterally in the thalamus, the dorsal part of the pons, and the cerebellar white matter. The patient was diagnosed as having both acute necrotizing encephalopathy and hemophagocytic syndrome. serum and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were elevated to the same high levels (serum:cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6, 103:101 pg/mL; tumor necrosis factor-alpha 753:753 pg/mL). The clinical symptoms and the magnetic resonance imaging findings improved immediately after the administration of dexamethasone. These results suggest that the hypercytokinemia and the hyperpermeability of both the blood-brain barrier and the capillary walls of the central nervous system might be essential in the pathogenesis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy, and that early steroid therapy might be effective in these conditions.
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keywords = bone
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12/22. Haemophagocytic syndrome presenting as pyrexia of unknown origin.

    Haemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) should be included in the differential diagnosis of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). The hallmark of HPS is the accumulation of activated macrophages that engulf haematopoietic cells in the reticuloendothelial system. We describe a patient with unexplained fever in which a final diagnosis of HPS was established in a bone marrow study.
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keywords = macrophage, bone
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13/22. T-gamma delta large granular lymphocyte leukemia preceded by pure red cell aplasia and complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    A 51-year-old man developed anemia, and was diagnosed with pure red cell aplasia through the absence of erythroid progenitors. Initially, he was treated with cyclosporine and prednisolone for 6 months but they were ineffective. Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with the T-cell gamma delta phenotype evolved after 6 months showing CD2 , CD3 , CD8- and CD56- with the T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangement, clonalities of gamma and delta genes and complex chromosome abnormality simultaneously with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomic dna was detected in the bone marrow cells. Administration of bolus methylprednisolone was ineffective, and the patient died one month later. In the present patient, it seemed that lymphoproliferative disease of large granular lymphocytes (LDGL) manifested initially as PRCA, gammadelta LGL leukemia evolved, and finally fatal HPS become complicated, presumably caused by the EBV reactivation in the immunodeficiency state with the administration of immunosuppressants.
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keywords = bone
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14/22. Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome in a case of systemic lupus erythematosus that was diagnosed by detection of hemophagocytosing macrophages in peripheral blood smears.

    A 38-year-old woman with pancytopenia and liver dysfunction was diagnosed with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). On days 9 and 10 of admission, peripheral blood smears showed macrophages phagocytosing platelets, and reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was diagnosed. Hemophagocytic syndrome was successfully treated with high-dose prednisolone therapy and one course of methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Detection of hemophagocytosing macrophages in peripheral blood smears would be a useful and noninvasive method of diagnosing SLE-associated HPS.
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ranking = 7357.3945982057
keywords = macrophage
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15/22. Tuberculosis-associated haemophagocytic syndrome.

    Haemophagocytic syndrome is a disorder characterised by fevers, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, and hyperferritinaemia due to dysregulated activation and proliferation of macrophages, leading to uncontrolled phagocytosis of platelets, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and their haematopoietic precursors throughout the reticuloendothelial system. Primary or familial haemophagocytic syndrome appears to have a genetic aetiology, whereas secondary haemophagocytic syndrome may be associated with malignancy, autoimmune disease, or infection. Epstein-Barr virus is the most common infectious aetiology implicated in haemophagocytic syndrome, but the syndrome has been associated with a variety of other viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. We describe a case of haemophagocytic syndrome associated with disseminated mycobacterium tuberculosis. We review all cases of M tuberculosis-associated haemophagocytic syndrome reported in the English language literature and discuss important issues pertaining to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this disease.
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ranking = 1226.2324330343
keywords = macrophage
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16/22. Hemophagocytic syndrome after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.

    Hemophagocytic syndrome is a fatal complication after liver transplantation that is rarely reported. Among 260 adult patients who underwent living donor liver transplantation at our hospital, three cases (1%) were complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome. Intensive investigation revealed aspergillus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis c virus as the most likely causative organisms in each patient. Despite the immediate initiation of anti-infectious treatment and supportive care, all patients died. When pancytopenia with possible underlying infectious disease is observed in liver transplant recipients, hemophagocytic syndrome should be suspected and bone marrow biopsy considered. The prognosis of hemophagocytic syndrome remains poor and further investigations are required to establish effective therapeutic options.
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keywords = bone
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17/22. True malignant histiocytosis with trisomy 9 following primary mediastinal germ cell tumor.

    A 24-year-old Japanese man was admitted due to bloody phlegm in May 2002. A diagnosis of mediastinal germ cell tumor, mixed type involving seminoma, immature teratoma and embryonal carcinoma, was made by transthoracic needle biopsy. Three months later, his complete blood counts revealed pancytopenia with high fever. Examination of bone marrow revealed increased atypical large histiocytes (5.6%) with hemophagocytosis, and thus, hemophagocytic syndrome related to germ cell tumor was diagnosed. In addition, chromosomal analysis of the bone marrow cells revealed a 47, XY, 9 genotype. Chemotherapies for germ cell tumor and hemophagocytic syndrome were performed without any improvement, and he died of diffuse alveolar damage. autopsy revealed diffuse infiltration of immature histiocytes with hemophagocytosis in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The atypical histiocytes were positive for CD68 and lysozyme and negative for lymphoid markers, and the diagnosis of true malignant histiocytosis associated with mediastinal germ cell tumor was made. The rare chromosomal abnormality of trisomy 9, a marker for benzene-related leukemia, was seen in the present case without apparent benzene exposure.
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keywords = bone
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18/22. Griscelli syndrome.

    A 4-month-old child had silvery gray hair, light-colored skin, recurrent chest infections, hepatosplenomegaly, and episodes of pancytopenia and hemophagocytosis in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. light microscopy of hair showed characteristic large aggregates of pigment granules distributed irregularly along the hair shaft. Peripheral blood smear examination did not show giant granules in granulocytes. Enlarged hyperpigmented basal melanocytes with sparsely pigmented adjacent keratinocytes were seen on the skin biopsy specimen. On the basis of these clinical and laboratory findings, Griscelli syndrome was diagnosed. The child succumbed to infection during an accelerated phase of the disease.
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keywords = bone
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19/22. Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome successfully treated with cyclosporin A.

    A 17-year-old girl previously in good health presented with a 2-month history of recurrent, high-grade fever; general fatigue; anorexia; a 10-kg weight loss; and multiple, painful, reddish skin lesions on the lower abdomen. Some lesions were ulcerated, with an oily yellowish brown discharge. A systemic review was unremarkable other than bleeding from the nose. Her medical and family histories were unremarkable. On examination, the patient was pale, jaundiced, and febrile (temperature of 39 degrees C). She had enlarged lymph nodes in the axillary and inguinal areas. There was moderate hepatosplenomegaly. Local skin examination revealed multiple erythematous, tender, and firm subcutaneous nodules of variable size (1-2 cm) on the lower abdomen. Some nodules were ulcerated, with oily yellowish brown discharge and overlying ecchymosis (Figures 1 and 2). Mucous membranes were free of lesions. Laboratory investigations showed pancytopenia, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>80 mm/h), normal renal function tests, abnormal hepatic function tests (alanine aminotransferase 172 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 229 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 725 U/L, and total bilirubin 100 mmol/L [normal range 0-18 mmol/L]), conjugated bilirubin 45 mmol/L (normal range 0-5 mmol/L), and high triglycerides 855 mg/dL (normal range 20-200 mg/dL). Prolonged prothrombin time, 26 seconds (normal range 13-16 seconds); prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, 61 seconds (normal range 26-38 seconds); positive disseminated intravascular coagulation studies evidenced by low fibrinogen, 74 mg/dL (normal range 160-350 mg/dL); and positive fibrinogen degradation products were also noted. Throat, midstream urine, and blood culture results were negative. serologic tests for syphilis, hiv, and hepatitis b and C viruses were negative. Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus serologic values revealed evidence of past infection. tuberculin and Coombs tests were negative. The alpha1-antitrypsin level was normal. Antinuclear and anti-smith antibodies, rheumatoid factor, and cryoglobulins were negative. CT showed enlarged lymph nodes in the axillary and inguinal areas, bilateral small pleural effusion, moderate hepatosplenomegaly, severe fatty infiltration of the liver, and thickening of lower abdominal subcutaneous tissue. A liver biopsy showed steatohepatitis. Bone marrow aspirate and trephine were normal. A deep punch biopsy of a nodule from the right lower abdomen revealed lobular panniculitis with atypical lymphocytes and large macrophages with cytophagocytosis ("beanbag" cells) (Figures 3 and 4). immunohistochemistry showed that these atypical cells were positive for CD3, CD8, granzyme B, and perforin, and negative for CD56. T-cell gene rearrangement studies on skin lesions revealed a monoclonal T-cell receptor (gamma-chain) gene rearrangement, supporting the diagnosis of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma. On presentation, the initial treatment included 6 U of fresh frozen plasma, 2 U of packed red blood cells, and 2 g IV fibrinogen for 3 consecutive days. The patient was started on prednisolone 60 mg orally once daily and cyclosporine A 5 mg/kg/d orally in two divided doses. The fever and other systemic symptoms and skin lesions resolved within 2 weeks after the treatment. The prednisolone dose was tapered gradually, and a maintenance dose of cyclosporine A was continued. The patient's condition remained in remission at 12-month follow-up; there was no evidence of clinical relapse.
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ranking = 1226.2324330343
keywords = macrophage
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20/22. Newborn infant with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and generalized skin eruptions.

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disease resulting from abnormal proliferation of histiocytes in tissues and organs. The incidence of HLH is 1:50,000-300,000. Cutaneous eruptions have been reported in 6-65% of the cases. It's important to differentiate the eruptions from other systemic diseases. We present an infant with prominent skin manifestations of HLH. On the 11th day of life, she was admitted to our hospital with complaint of a generalized rash that had started the previous day. The eruptions consisted of irregularly shaped maculopapular erythematous rash and purpura. Bone marrow aspiration on the 25th day of life revealed hemophagocytosis with increased macrophages and histiocytes, consistent with HLH. Treatment was started with dexamethasone followed by induction chemotherapy with etoposide. All skin manifestations resolved in a few days. Although the clinical features are nonspecific, HLH should be kept in mind as an accompanying disease in neonates presenting with skin eruptions.
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ranking = 1226.2324330343
keywords = macrophage
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