Cases reported "Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin"

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21/1878. Cerebral and renal embolization after lymphography in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: case report.

    An unusual case of lipid embolization to brain and kidney after lymphography in a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the upper anterior mediastinum is reported. Contrast material-enhanced echocardiography demonstrated a right-to-left shunt to the left atrium without evidence of a patent foramen ovale. Echo contrast particles were transiently present within the tumor surrounding the great vessels.
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22/1878. Pulmonary intravascular lymphomatosis: presentation with dyspnea and air trapping.

    Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm that is typically of B-cell lineage and characterized by proliferation of malignant cells within small arterioles, capillaries, and venules. We report a patient with pulmonary IVL who presented clinically with progressive dyspnea, fever, and a dry cough. Pulmonary function tests revealed a marked decrease in diffusion capacity with airflow obstruction and severe air trapping. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest with inspiratory and expiratory images revealed mosaic attenuation consistent with air trapping. Transbronchial biopsies revealed the diagnosis of IVL with capillary expansion in the alveolar and peribronchiolar interstitial tissue. IVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an interstitial lung disease, air trapping on pulmonary function tests, and mosaic attenuation on HRCT. Transbronchial biopsies may be the initial diagnostic procedure of choice.
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23/1878. Milestones in the development of Lym-1 therapy.

    Lym-1, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) that preferentially targets malignant lymphocytes, has induced therapeutic remissions in patients with advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) when labeled with iodine-131 (131I). Based on the strategy of fractionating the total radiation dose, trials were designed to define the safety, toxicity, and efficacy of a series of doses of 131I-Lym-1 given 2-6 weeks apart. All patients had disease resistant to standard therapy. 131I-Lym-1 was given after unconjugated Lym-1 and the 131I dose was escalated in Phase I-II trials. Therapy proved safe. The dose-limiting toxicity was thrombocytopenia. Nonhematological toxicities did not exceed grade 2 except for infrequent instances of grade 3 hypotension. In a low-dose (LD) trial of 131I-Lym-1, tumor regression occurred in 25 (83%) of 30 patients and 17 (57 %) had durable remissions; 3 of the remissions were complete. In a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) trial of 131I-Lym-1, 10 (71%) of 14 entries that received at least two doses of 131I-Lym-1 therapy and 11 (52%) of 21 total entries had remissions; 7 of the remissions were complete. All 3 entries in the MTD cohort of 100 mCi/m2 [3.7 MBq/m2] of body surface area had durable complete remissions. Therapeutic remission and human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) after Lym-1 therapy were associated with increased survival that was significant in multivariate analyses. Evidence for an Ab3 idiotypic network with an antibody cytotoxic for Raji human lymphoma was found in the only patient examined in detail thus far; this patient was studied because she had a high titer, HAMA and prolonged survival. In conclusion, 131I-Lym-1 induced durable remissions in patients with chemotherapy-resistant NHL or CLL and was associated with acceptable toxicity. In a subset of the patients, survival was quite prolonged perhaps related to development of Ab3.
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24/1878. Cutaneous granulomas associated with high-grade T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    We describe a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with a chemotherapy regimen (which included bleomycin, prednisolone and low-dose methotrexate) who developed cutaneous non-caseating granulomas. We felt our patient fitted into the category of 'sarcoid-like granulomas'.
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25/1878. Cutaneous waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in transformation.

    waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the elderly with characteristic monoclonal IgM-producing neoplastic infiltrates of the bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen. Cutaneous manifestations are usually nonspecific such as purpura, ulcers, and urticarial lesions. These lesions are caused by hyperviscosity of the blood, immune complex-mediated vascular damage, paraprotein deposition, and amyloid deposition. Specific skin lesions occur rarely and generally consist of translucent, flesh-colored papules composed of monoclonal IgM deposits. Rarely, there may be violaceous lesions composed of low-grade lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates characteristic of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Both cutaneous manifestations of the disease, as well as disease transformation to high-grade, large cell lymphoma are rare. We report two very unusual cases of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia with documented skin disease that demonstrated transformation to high-grade lymphoma. Both patients were elderly men with long-standing waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the bone marrow, who subsequently developed skin involvement by the disease. waldenstrom macroglobulinemia can rarely manifest as cutaneous disease, sometimes as a high-grade transformation of low-grade waldenstrom macroglobulinemia elsewhere. Distinction of cases of transformed waldenstrom macroglobulinemia from de novo cutaneous large cell lymphoma may be important, because the two entities are likely biologically different.
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26/1878. Pulmonary asbestosis associated to pleural non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    We describe herein a case report of a patient affected by pulmonary asbestosis who developed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma originating in the pleura. The case is unusual for the uncommon site and because the chronic antigenic stimulation by asbestos bodies may have locally promoted an immunologic derangement.
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27/1878. Reactive angioendotheliomatosis or intravascular histiocytosis? An immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study in two cases of intravascular histiocytic cell proliferation.

    Two elderly women with complex medical histories presented with erythematous patches, in one case involving the face and forearms, and in the other both elbows. Punch biopsies from both patients revealed intravascular proliferations of medium-sized and large cells with luminal occlusion typical of angioendotheliomatosis. Immunostaining did not show either lymphocytic or endothelial cell antigens but was consistent with a histiocytic differentiation of the intravascular cells in both cases, and was further substantiated by ultrastructural examination in one case. One patient received a course of cyclophosphamide therapy over 15 days. skin lesions faded but did not disappear. The patient died 10 months later from cardiac and renal failure, which was most probably unrelated to the skin lesions. In the other case, lesions diminished but did not entirely resolve with treatment with low doses of oral prednisone. Angioendotheliomatosis can be divided into a malignant variant, which is an angiotropic lymphoma mostly of B-cell phenotype, and a benign, reactive variant, which is characterized by a proliferation of cells expressing endothelial cell markers. Only one case of angioendotheliomatosis with cells of histiocytic differentiation has been published previously under the name of intravascular histiocytosis. Our cases are very similar to the latter. The question arises as to whether intravascular histiocytic cell proliferation is a neoplastic proliferation of histiocytes or an early stage of classic reactive angioendotheliomatosis representing the residual cells associated with organization of microthrombi, which will be later followed by endothelial cell proliferation.
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28/1878. Management of pleural effusions in children with malignant lymphoma.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine potential problems in the diagnosis and management of children with pleural effusions and malignant lymphoma as well as the efficacy of thoracentesis. methods: The case histories of six children with malignant lymphoma who presented with pleural effusions were reviewed. Thoracentesis was performed using the Seldinger technique. RESULTS: Four of the children presented with symptoms and chest radiograph findings similar to pneumonia. A large mediastinal mass was present in two children. Pleural fluid analysis resulted in a definitive diagnosis of lymphoma in five of the six children. Two of the children had symptoms of reexpansion pulmonary edema after removal of pleural fluid. An empyema developed in one child after thoracotomy and chest tube placement. Reaccumulation of pleural fluid was common before initiating chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Malignant pleural effusions frequently are present in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. They may present with respiratory distress because of the size of the effusion, the mediastinal mass, or both. Management of these pleural effusions is associated with potential complications, some of which are life threatening. Thoracentesis is the initial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of choice. The use of a Seldinger technique for thoracentesis has proved useful and safe. In patients with large effusions, aggressive removal of the pleural fluid may be followed by reexpansion pulmonary edema.
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29/1878. Intravascular and diffuse dermal reactive angioendotheliomatosis secondary to iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas.

    Reactive angioendotheliomatosis is a rare benign process that has been mainly described in patients with systemic infections, such as subacute bacterial endocarditis or tuberculosis, and in association with intravascular deposition of cryoproteins. Histopathologically, it is characterized by a proliferation of endothelial cells within vascular lumina resulting in the obliteration of the involved vessels. Another rare variant of reactive angioendotheliomatosis has been described in the lower extremities of patients with severe peripheral vascular atherosclerotic disease. It consists of violaceous and purpuric plaques histopathologically characterized by diffuse proliferation of endothelial cells interstitially arranged between collagen bundles of the reticular dermis. This second variant has been named diffuse dermal reactive angioendotheliomatosis. We report two patients with reactive cutaneous angioendotheliomatosis appearing distally to arteriovenous fistulas used for hemodialysis because of chronic renal failure. The first patient showed intravascular reactive angioendotheliomatosis, while the second one had purpuric plaques that were characterized histopathologically by diffuse dermal angioendotheliomatosis. Both patients showed an arteriovenous "steal" syndrome with distal ischemia, and it is possible that a local increase of vascular endothelial growth factor, as is the case in hypoxia situations, induces the endothelial proliferation. To the best of our knowledge, cutaneous reactive angioendotheliomatosis has not been previously described in association with arteriovenous shunts.
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30/1878. Nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma with cutaneous involvement.

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a third lymphocyte lineage, in addition to B- and T-cells, that mediate cytotoxicity without prior sensitization. NK cells also have phenotypic and genotypic characteristics; they express the NK-related antigen CD56 and T-cell markers such as CD2 and CD3 epsilon, but their T-cell receptor (TCR) locus is not rearranged. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are divided into B- and T-cell neoplasms and NK-cell lymphomas. We describe 2 Japanese patients with nasal and nasal-type T/NK-cell lymphoma in which the skin, nasal/nasopharyngeal region, bone marrow, and lymph node were the sites of involvement. The clinical and histopathologic findings were recorded. In addition, immunophenotyping, TCR gene rearrangement, and the existence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) dna by polymerase chain reaction amplification were determined. Clinically, the cutaneous eruptions were purplish, hard, multiple nodules. Histologically, angiocentric proliferation of small-to medium-sized, pleomorphic, lymphoid cells were observed. They revealed hand-mirror-shaped lymphocytes with azurophilic granules with the use of Giemsa staining by touch smear. These lymphocytes were found to be positive to immunophenotyping for CD2 (Leu5b), CD3 epsilon (DAKO), CD4 (Leu3a), and CD56 (Leu 19). No clonal rearrangement of TCR-beta, -gamma, and -delta genes and immunoglobulin gene markers were found, and no positive results of identification of EBV dna were shown. The patients underwent cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy with complete remission; however, both had recurrence of disease. Because NK-cell lymphomas express some T-cell markers, they may be mistakenly diagnosed as peripheral T-cell lymphomas if they are not investigated for the NK-cell-specific marker, CD56. Therefore the importance of immunophenotypic investigations of CD56 should be stressed. Also, the importance of clinical investigation of nasal/nasopharyngeal lymphomas should be stressed when NK-cell lymphoma is diagnosed involving the skin, because NK-cell lymphomas are often associated with the nasal and nasopharyngeal region.
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