Cases reported "Lymphopenia"

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1/4. Reversible dysfunction of t-lymphocytes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    A 30-year-old man with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, eventually fatal, was found to have common variable immunodeficiency. In addition to low serum immunoglobulin concentrations he also had lymphopenia and cell-mediated immunodeficiency as shown by cutaneous anergy and a poor lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in vitro. However, intradermal injection of PHA produced a vigorous cutaneous response, showing that some cell-mediated responsiveness remained. The responsiveness of his lymphocytes to PHA was restored towards normal (confirmed by chromosome studies) by the addition of a small number of normal leukocytes to cultures; thus a reversible functional defect in his t-lymphocytes was revealed. Experiments indicated that the defect was cellular and not due to serum factors and it was concluded that normal leukocytes restored a missing factor to the patient's t-lymphocytes. Although counts of macrophage precursor cells in the bloodstream were low, thus contributing to the immunodeficiency, this could not have caused the reduced PHA response. Several relatives of this patient had lymphoma; two cousins had common variable immunodeficiency.
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ranking = 1
keywords = chromosome
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2/4. Ataxia-telangiectasia. X,14 translocation, progressive deterioration of lymphocyte numbers and function, and abnormal in vitro immunoglobulin production.

    Three children with ataxia-telangiectasia have been followed up since their early childhood. Sequential immunological, biochemical and chromosome studies have been performed over the last 7 years. All the children showed progressive cerebellar ataxia and inexorable neurological deterioration. Further evidence for the progressive nature of this condition is the fall in lymphocyte counts, deterioration of lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens, and an increase in chromosomal translocations and breakage. Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels are a highly characteristic and useful diagnostic finding in this condition. Two of the patients had an X,14 translocation. in vitro studies of immunoglobulin synthesis suggest an intrinsic defect in B-cell synthesis as well as decreased helper T-cell activity. In spite of moderately severe and progressive abnormalities in the immune system, sinopulmonary infections have not been prominent in our patients.
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ranking = 275.74941310458
keywords = breakage, chromosome
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3/4. A chromosomal breakage syndrome with profound immunodeficiency.

    The chromosomal breakage syndromes--ataxia-telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, and Bloom's syndrome--are associated with growth failure, neurologic abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and an increased incidence of malignancy. The relationship between these features is unknown. We recently evaluated a 21-year-old female with more severe chromosomal breakage, immunodeficiency, and growth failure than in any of the mentioned disorders. As of November 1985, the patient remains clinically free of malignancy. At age 18, the patient's weight was 22.6 kg (50th percentile for seven years), height was 129 cm (50th percentile for eight years), and head circumference was 42 cm (50th percentile for six months). Laboratory studies demonstrated a marked decrease in both B and T cell number and function. The peripheral blood contained 400 to 900 lymphocytes/microL with 32% T11 cells, 17% T4 cells, and 21% T8 cells. The proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen, and concanavalin a were less than 10% of control. There were 1% surface IgM positive cells, and serum IgG was 185 mg/dL, IgM 7 mg/dL, IgA 5 mg/dL. In lymphocyte cultures stimulated with the T cell mitogens PHA, phorbol ester, and interleukin 2, 55% of the banded metaphases demonstrated breaks or rearrangements. The majority of the breaks involved four fragile sites on chromosomes 7 and 14, 7p13, 7q35, 14q11, and 14q32. These are the sites of the genes for the T cell-antigen receptor and the immunoglobulin heavy chain and are sites of gene rearrangement in lymphocyte differentiation. Epstein-Barr virus stimulated B cells and fibroblast cultures also demonstrated a high incidence of breaks, but the sites were less selective. These findings suggest that the sites of chromosomal fragility in the chromosomal breakage syndromes may be informative and that factors other than the severity of the immunodeficiency or the high incidence of chromosomal damage may contribute to the occurrence of malignancy in the chromosomal breakage syndromes.
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ranking = 2198.9953048367
keywords = breakage, chromosome
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4/4. Refractory ulcerative lupus vulgaris associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia, inversion of chromosome 14, primary amenorrhoea and mental retardation.

    A case of ulcerative lupus vulgaris, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is reported. The initial lesion of our case was a papule on the nose, which progressed during antituberculous treatment and caused cartilage destruction and ectropion. Immunological analysis revealed CD4 lymphocytopenia, and the possibility of idiopathic CD4 lymphocyte deficiency was considered. In addition, the patient had primary amenorrhoea, mental retardation and inversion of chromosome 14. CD4 lymphocytopenia and chromosomal abnormality are the possible causes of antituberculous treatment failure.
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ranking = 5
keywords = chromosome
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