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1/103. central nervous system T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PURPOSE: central nervous system (CNS)-T cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) developing during the course of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is reported. patients AND methods: CAEBV was diagnosed in a 14-month-old boy with fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and abnormal high titers of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies. At 8 years of age, he had a splenectomy because of progressive disease. RESULTS: After 27 months of clinical remission, muscle weakness and paresthesia developed. magnetic resonance imaging of his brain showed spotty T2 prolongation in left parietal, bilateral frontal, and temporal white matter with meningeal enhancement. brain biopsy revealed the cerebral infiltration of CD3 , CD4 , CD8-, CD45RO , CD56-, and EBV-encoded rna 1 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The CNS involvement of EBV-associated T-LPD is a rare but serious complication in CAEBV without known underlying immunodeficiency.
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keywords = fever
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2/103. Treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder with foscarnet alone in an adult after simultaneous heart and renal transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: The kind and intensity of immunosuppression as well as Epstein-Barr virus, a transforming herpes virus that selectively infects B lymphocytes and causes infectious mononucleosis, have been implicated in the development of posttransplantation lymph-proliferative disorders (PT-LPD), a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation. The morphologic spectrum of PT-LPD ranges from polymorphous hyperplasia to monomorphous B-non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Among different modalities of treatment, reduction of immunosuppression with or without co-administration of antiviral agents may result in PT-LPD regression especially in mononucleosis-like disease. methods: Nonmononucleosis-like PT-LPD in a simultaneous heart and renal recipient was treated with foscarnet, a potent inhibitor of different herpes viruses with a low profile of toxicity, although intensive immunosuppression therapy was maintained. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week course of foscarnet resulted in relapse-free complete remission (follow-up 10 months). Thus, antiviral treatment with foscarnet, may induce prolonged remission in nonmononucleosis-like PT-LPD without reduction of immunosuppression.
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ranking = 9878.6842525253
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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3/103. A boy with fatal infectious mononucleosis suspected as the first Japanese case of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    We report a case of a 10-month-old boy who died of severe hepatic failure after a prolonged course of infectious mononucleosis. He also presented interstitial pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis and aplastic anaemia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity had not been detected in his peripheral blood during the course of the illness. Studies of his mother revealed a severe reactivation pattern of anti-EBV antibodies and decreased EBV-specific CTL activity. An X-linked familial susceptibility to EBV infection such as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) might be associated with his fatal EBV infection.
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ranking = 29970.927452843
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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4/103. Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) deficiency in generalized Epstein-Barr virus infection with interstitial lymphoid and granulomatous pneumonia, focal cerebral lesions, and genital ulcers: remission following IFN-gamma substitution therapy.

    A 26-year-old previously healthy woman developed granulomatous pneumonitis, encephalitis, and genital ulceration during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. EBV dna was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of serum, lung tissue, and genital ulcer specimens. serology verified primary EBV infection. The patient lacked lymphocytes cytotoxic to autologous EBV-transformed B lymphocytes. No spontaneous or in vitro EBV-induced interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production was evident in peripheral blood. The cells had normal IFN-gamma production when stimulated with staphylococcus aureus exotoxin A. In the bone marrow and peripheral blood, the number of large granular CD56 lymphocytes (natural killer cells) increased 39%-55%, but no CD4 or CD8 cell lymphocytosis was initially found. A partial clinical response was achieved with treatment with acyclovir, corticosteroids, and intravenous gamma-globulin. Because of persistent granulomatous central nervous system and lung involvement, subcutaneous IFN-gamma therapy was started but was discontinued after 3 months because of development of fever, pancytopenia, and hepatitis. This therapy initiated a complete clinical recovery, which occurred parallel to development of EBV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes and normalization of natural killer cell lymphocytosis. These findings provide evidence for an EBV-induced lymphoproliferative disorder due to a T lymphocyte dysfunction associated with a selective lack of IFN-gamma synthesis.
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5/103. T cell lymphoma involving the graft of a multivisceral organ recipient.

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders are typically of B cell origin, whereas T cell lymphomas have been rarely documented. We present a case of a non-Hodgkin's T cell lymphoma involving the intestinal graft of a multivisceral transplant patient. The patient was a 7-year-old girl who underwent at age 5 a multivisceral transplant secondary to short gut syndrome. Baseline immunosuppressive therapy consisted of FK506, methylprednisone, and mycophenolate mofetil. At 2 years posttransplant she presented with fever, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Multiple endoscopic biopsies revealed a severe intensity, diffuse and focally nodular lymphocytic infiltrate composed predominantly of small, monomorphic lymphoid cells with scattered plasma cells and abundant eosinophils. Immunohistochemically, the majority of the lymphoid cells expressed the pan T cell marker CD3. Southern blot analysis revealed rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta chain gene, with germline configuration of the heavy immunoglobulin chain gene, confirming a clonal T cell genotype. in situ hybridization for Epstein Barr virus revealed rare positive lymphoid cells, that were negative with CD3 by immunohistochemical staining. A detailed clinico-radiological work-up revealed no other sites of involvement by the lymphomatous process. After the diagnosis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, immunosuppression was reduced with a subsequent partial improvement in the endoscopic appearance of the graft and a focal decrease in the lymphocytic infiltrate seen in the follow-up biopsies. Repeat gene rearrangement studies demonstrated germline configuration of both the T cell receptor beta chain gene and the heavy chain immunoglobulin. gene. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of a T cell lymphoma affecting the intestinal allograft of a multivisceral transplant patient.
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6/103. Cutaneous presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. However, cutaneous manifestation is an extremely rare phenomenon of this disorder. We describe a lung transplantation patient with cutaneous PTLD who presented with bilateral extremity nodules and fever.
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keywords = fever
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7/103. Large deletion of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    The X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by an abnormal responses to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, and malignant lymphoma. Mutations in the gene coding for a T cell-specific SLAM-associated protein (SAP) have been recently identified in XLP patients. We report on a 1-year-old boy representing fulminant hemophagocytic syndrome. He developed high fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with liver dysfunction, and pancytopenia with marrow hemophagocytosis. EBV dna was abnormally increased in the blood. polymerase chain reaction failed to amplify SAP mRNA and genomic dna products from the patient' As peripheral blood. A large deletion of the SAP gene was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH analysis also disclosed that the patient's mother was a carrier. We conclude that FISH can be useful in the diagnosis of XLP with large deletions of the SAP gene and its carrier state.
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ranking = 5995.1854905686
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis, fever
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8/103. Fulminant EBV( ) T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following acute/chronic EBV infection: a distinct clinicopathologic syndrome.

    This study describes the clinicopathologic features of 5 patients who developed a fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) after acute EBV infection. One additional patient developed a similar disorder in the setting of long-standing chronic active EBV infection. Detailed immunophenotyping, in situ hybridization for EBV early rna-1 (EBER1) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses for immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma gene rearrangements were performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from all patients. In addition, EBV strain typing and detection of the characteristic 30-bp deletion of the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene were performed by PCR. Controls included 8 cases of uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis (IM). patients included 4 males and 2 females with a median age of 18 years (2-37 years). Three patients were Mexican, 2 were white, and 1 was of Asian descent. All presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia; 5 were previously healthy, but had a clinical history of a recent viral-like upper respiratory illness (1 week to 2 months), and 1 patient had documented chronic active EBV infection for 7 years. Serologic data for EBV were incomplete but titers were either negative or only modestly elevated in 3 cases. In 1 case serology was consistent with severe chronic active EBV infection. In the remaining 2 cases serologic studies were not performed. All patients died within 7 days to 8 months of presentation with T-cell LPD. On histologic examination, the liver and spleen showed prominent sinusoidal and portal lymphoid infiltrates of CD3( ), beta F1( ), EBER1( ) T cells lacking significant cytologic atypia. Two cases were CD4( ), 2 cases were CD8( ), and 2 cases had admixed CD4( ) and CD8( ) cells without clear subset predominance. All were TIA-1( ), CD56(-). Only rare B cells were noted. Marked erythrophagocytosis was present. Molecular analysis revealed identical T-cell clones in 2 or more sites (liver, spleen, lymph node) in 5 cases. All patients carried type A EBV; 4 cases had wild-type EBV-LMP, and 2 showed the 30-bp deletion. This fulminant T-cell LPD after acute/chronic EBV infection is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, often without significant lymphadenopathy, fever, liver failure, pancytopenia, and erythrophagocytosis indicative of a hemophagocytic syndrome. EBV serology may be misleading, with lack of elevated titers. The presence of an EBER1( ) T-cell infiltrate with scant B cells should alert one to this diagnosis. Although cytologic atypia is minimal, studies for T-cell clonality confirm the diagnosis. (blood. 2000;96:443-451)
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ranking = 5996.1854905686
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis, fever
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9/103. Development of a biologically distinct EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder following autologous bone marrow transplantation for an EBV-negative post-renal allograft Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a known complication of both solid organ transplantation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) but is rarely seen following autologous BMT. We report the case of a 45 year-old female who developed Burkitt's lymphoma eight years after a renal allograft. This PTLD was found to have lambda light chain restriction, contained del(8)(q24) and add(14)(q32), and was negative for EBV on immunohistochemical and dna-based PCR analyses. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) PCR studies revealed a prominent clonal rearrangement. She responded to intravenous cyclophosphamide and proceeded to high-dose chemoradiotherapy and mafosfamide-purged autologous BMT. Thirty-nine days post-BMT she presented with cough and fever and developed hepatic dysfunction; abnormal lymphoplasmacytoid cells were noted in the peripheral blood. Investigations revealed kappa light chain restriction, an oligoclonal IgH rearrangement, a normal karyotype and PCR studies for EBV were positive, consistent with a clinically and biologically distinct PTLD. She initially improved following discontinuation of immunosuppression, but then deteriorated abruptly and died 58 days post-BMT. It is likely that the two separate episodes of PTLD in this patient, one of which was atypical, arose as a result of both the chronic use of cyclosporine and the impairment of cell-mediated immunity associated with autologous BMT. The sequence of events in this patient should contribute to a better understanding of late-onset, EBV-negative PTLD.
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10/103. Fatal lymphoproliferative disease as a complication of Evans syndrome.

    A 9-month-old boy had bruising and petechiae. Investigation revealed a Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The infant was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids. The infant eventually had recurrent fevers, hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary nodules, and parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) lesions develop. Results of a lung biopsy revealed a polyclonal lymphoproliferative disease. polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the presence of the Epstein-Barr (EB) viral genome in the lung nodules. The infant died from progressive lung disease 6 months after the initial symptoms of Evans syndrome. Lymphoproliferative disease is known to occur in a variety of settings after immunosuppression, especially in solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case of polyclonal lymphocyte proliferation in a patient with Evans syndrome.
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keywords = fever
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