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11/103. hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is not an allergic disease, but an Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    Recently, we showed that 5 cases of hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) concealed the clonal lymphoproliferation of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) dna-positive natural killer (NK) cells. Although the symptoms of HMB have been supposed to derive from Arthus phenomenon, it has become apparent that this unique disorder has the potential to develop into so-called malignant histiocytosis (MH) or related disorders. Accordingly, the criteria for MH have been changed, and a newer diagnostic name, hemophagocytic syndrome, has been described as being associated with viral infection or leukemia/lymphoma. We previously reported that biopsy specimens taken from skin lesions demonstrated infiltration of lymphocytes bearing the phenotype of NK cells. In this study, we found that skin lesions exhibited infiltration of atypical lymphocytes around the small vessels, resembling angiocentric lymphoma, and that these infiltrating cells were positive for EBER-1 by in situ hybridization. These findings support the concept that HMB is the most important manifestation of a certain type of lymphoproliferative disease that presents with an intense local skin reaction and high fever following mosquito bites, and whose essence is the lymphoproliferation of EBV dna-positive NK cells.
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12/103. T cell lymphoproliferative disorder following bone marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia.

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is uncommonly of T cell origin, especially following BMT. We describe a 13-year-old boy with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) and no evidence of Fanconi's anemia who underwent BMT at 11 years of age using CY 10 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5, -4, antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) 30 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5 approximately -3 and CsA from day -1 as conditioning. The BMT failed and he received a further peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) 240 days after BMT. Conditioning was with CY 50 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -5 approximately -2, and ALG 15 mg/kg once daily i.v. on days -4 approximately -2. GVHD prophylaxis included CsA and MTX. Engraftment was later confirmed by cytogenetic studies. Desquamation and ulcers of the oral mucosa and mouth angle developed in the 13th month post PBSCT. A buccal mucosa biopsy on day 524 revealed only plasmacytosis. Immunosuppressants were discontinued at that point. Generalized lymphadenopathy, prolonged fever (waxing and waning) and facial swelling developed in the 18th month post PBSCT. A neck lymph node biopsy on day 601 showed T cell lymphoma of diffuse large cell type with monoclonal TCR gamma-chain gene rearrangement. A FISH study showed that the malignant T cells were of recipient origin. EBV in situ hybridization was negative. He did not receive further treatment apart from discontinuation of immunosuppressants. He was followed up in our out-patient clinic and showed good performance 1170 days post PBSCT. We speculate that a different mechanism was operating in the pathogenesis of T cell lymphoma in this case. risk factors include SAA and two transplants, conditioned with CY and ALG, long term use of CsA and treatment with azathioprine.
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keywords = fever
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13/103. T-gamma gene rearrangement and CMV mononucleosis.

    A clonal T-gamma rearrangement was found in peripheral blood and bone marrow in a 57-year-old female who presented with 6-week history of fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. splenomegaly, hemolytic anemia, atypical lymphocytosis, a marrow lymphoid aggregate, and elevated LDH had suggested lymphoproliferative disease. However, IgM serology for cytomegalovirus (CMV) was positive. With observation alone, her clinical features improved over 4 weeks with normalization of the blood count and disappearance of CMV viremia and the aberrant T-gamma clone. Acute CMV infection may mimic lymphoproliferative disease. T-gamma gene rearrangement may be part of the immune response to CMV infection and is not specific to lymphoid neoplasia.
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ranking = 5180.331682609
keywords = mononucleosis, fever
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14/103. Alterations of the X-linked lymphoproliferative disease gene SH2D1A in common variable immunodeficiency syndrome.

    X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the SH2D1A gene. At least 3 major manifestations characterize its clinical presentation: fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM), lymphomas, and immunoglobulin deficiencies. common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a syndrome characterized by immunoglobulin deficiency leading to susceptibility to infection. In some patients with CVID, a defective btk or CD40-L gene has been found, but most often there is no clearly identified etiology. Here, 2 unrelated families in whom male members were affected by CVID were examined for a defect in the XLP gene. In one family previously reported in the literature as having progressive immunoglobulin deficiencies, 3 brothers were examined for recurrent respiratory infections, whereas female family members showed only elevated serum immunoglobulin a levels. A grandson of one of the brothers died of a severe aspergillus infection secondary to progressive immunoglobulin deficiency, FIM, aplastic anemia, and B-cell lymphoma. In the second family, 2 brothers had B lymphocytopenia and immunoglobulin deficiencies. X-linked agammaglobulinemia syndrome was excluded genetically, and they were classified as having CVID. The occurrence of FIM in a male cousin of the brothers led to the XLP diagnosis. Because the SH2D1A gene was found altered in both families, these findings indicate that XLP must be considered when more than one male patient with CVID is encountered in the same family, and SH2D1A must be analyzed in all male patients with CVID. Moreover, these data link defects in the SH2D1A gene to abnormal B-lymphocyte development and to dysgammaglobulinemia in female members of families with XLP disease.
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ranking = 5994.1854905686
keywords = infectious mononucleosis, mononucleosis
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15/103. fatal outcome in a patient developing Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) without measurable disease.

    A 51-year-old female patient in the first chronic phase of CML received an allogeneic PBSCT from a matched unrelated donor. The transplant was manipulated by CD34 cell selection. On day 193 after transplantation the patient was readmitted to the hospital with recurrent fever of unknown origin and cough. Clinical, radiographic and sonographic evaluation revealed no characteristic findings besides a mild splenomegaly. Screening for EBV, CMV, RSV and HSV did not indicate an active infection. On day 203 the patient developed generalized seizures, respiratory failure and died within 24 h in multiorgan failure. The macroscopic postmortem was still not enlightening; the histological examination however, demonstrated diffuse organ infiltration by monoclonal lymphoblastoid cells due to EBV-LPD.
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16/103. Fatal hemophagocytic syndrome after living-related liver transplantation: a report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is a serious hematological disorder caused by activated T lymphocytes in immunologically compromised patients. There is no report of HPS in liver transplant recipients. methods: Among 135 patients who underwent living-related liver transplantation between June 1990 and October 2000, HPS developed in two pediatric patients (1.5%) on the 15th and 134th postoperative day, respectively. The courses of these patients were evaluated. RESULTS: The cause of HPS was unknown in patient 1 and suspected to be Epstein-Barr virus infection in patient 2. The course of patient 2 was also complicated by posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Both patients had high fever, pancytopenia, coagulopathy, and marked elevation of serum-soluble interleukin 2 receptor, serum ferritin, and urine beta2-microglobulin levels. The diagnosis was established based on clinical findings, laboratory data, and bone marrow biopsy. Both patients died in an acute course despite intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: HPS should be recognized as a severe hematological complication in liver transplant patients. Prompt institution of adequate treatment is necessary to prevent fatality.
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17/103. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in a child: clinical and molecular characterization.

    We report a 12-year-old girl suffering from end-stage renal disease due to focal-segmental sclerosis and retardation of statomotoric and mental development of unknown origin. Renal transplantation (TX) was performed 7 months after initiation of peritoneal dialysis at the age of 11 years. Immunosuppressive therapy included cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil and methylprednisolone. The patient developed spiking fever up to 40 degrees C without signs of infection 10 months after TX. kidney function remained stable but ultrasound examination and CT-scan showed hypodense masses within both liver and spleen. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results with a high number of copies (20 x 10(6) copies/ml blood) against the background of a previous EBV infection (IgG positive, IgM negative) made the diagnosis of EBV-reactivation likely. splenectomy was performed. Examination of the spleen showed EBV-associated polymorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) with predominant B cell proliferation and monoclonal VH3-rearrangement of the IgG heavy chain locus. Therapy with acyclovir was introduced and immunosuppression was reduced. No rejection episode occurred. body temperature normalized and the patient recovered over a 3-month period. EBV-PCR in plasma was negative (0.02 x 10(6) copies/ml blood) 12 weeks after reduction of immunosuppression. The liver masses completely resolved after 27 months. After a total follow-up of 36 months the child remains in good health.
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18/103. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for active Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    A 5-month-old male presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, leukocytosis with atypical lymphoblasts, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Severe combined imunodeficiency syndrome (T-, B , NK ), B lymphoproliferative disease and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis triggered by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were diagnosed. As his clinical situation deteriorated rapidly, BMT was performed with unmanipulated marrow stem cells from his EBV-positive HLA-identical sister after conditioning with dexamethasone (1.75 mg/kg/day), cyclophosphamide (114 mg/kg) and etoposide (10 mg/kg), with no immunosuppression given post transplant. Engraftment occurred on day 6 with explosive proliferation of donor CD8( ) T cells. The patient died 3 days later from acute respiratory distress syndrome. autopsy revealed full donor engraftment and no signs of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or B lymphoproliferative disease. Thus, transplanted T cells can expand very rapidly within days after BMT and clear EBV lymphoproliferative disease and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
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19/103. Successful treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in autologous blood stem cell transplant recipients.

    We report three cases of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the context of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The first two cases received ASCT for MM, one with a CD34-selected autograft and the other with an unmanipulated autograft. Both these cases of PTLD achieved a complete response following treatment with IVIG, gancyclovir, solumedrol and interferon (IFN). The third case received ASCT with an unmanipulated autograft for relapsed angioimmunoblastic lymphoma. He also achieved a complete response but only after rituximab was added to IVIG, gancyclovir, solumedrol and IFN. None of these patients experienced a relapse of their PTLD with follow-up ranging from 1.5 to 5 years. These cases highlight the importance of considering PTLD in the differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and fever post ASCT. They also demonstrate the possibility of durable complete remission of post-ASCT PTLD following antiviral and immune modulating therapy.
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20/103. Clinico-pathologic conference: 18-month old boy with fever and severe respiratory infection.

    An 18-month-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to an IL2-y-receptor defect had a successful engraftment following a related mismatched allogenic bone transplant. He subsequently developed post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, with severe respiratory infection which resulted in death. The case presentation is followed by a discussion with differential diagnosis of the clinical findings, and then by a discussion of the pathology found and the implications of this diagnosis.
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