Cases reported "Magnesium Deficiency"

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1/13. magnesium deficiency in children with urolithiasis.

    In a group of 57 children with urolithiasis hypomagnesaemia was found in 15 cases (26.3%). All children but one with abnormally low serum magnesium levels had recurrent or bilateral nephrolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. prevalence of hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria, marked severity of the clinical features, abnormality of Ca metabolism and its responsiveness to MgO treatment were demonstrable in Mg deficiency.
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keywords = hypercalciuria
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2/13. Familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria in 2 siblings.

    Familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency in childhood is a rarely described disease. Two siblings of consanguineous Tunesian parents (first cousins), a 2-year-old boy and a 4-year-old girl presented with renal insufficiency and severe bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Both were found to have decreased serum and intracellular magnesium concentrations, increased urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium, mild glomerular and severe tubular proteinuria and low citrate excretion in urine. Pathological biochemical findings and the severity of nephrocalcinosis of the boy compared to findings of the sister were strongly marked, histology of the boy's kidney showed severe medullary nephrocalcinosis, tubular atrophy, focal lymphoplasmacellulary infiltration, focal cortical fibrosis, immature glomerula, segmental and global glomerulosclerosis. Subsequent mutation analysis revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene paracellin-1 in both affected individuals. Therapy consisted of sodium bicarbonate, cholecalciferol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide, citrate salts and oral magnesium administration. hypercalciuria decreased in both children by therapy with thiazide diuretics, but hypomagnesemia was unresponsive to magnesium administration. After a 32-month follow-up the boy commenced hemodialysis at the age of 5 years, whereas his sister showed no decline in renal function.
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keywords = hypercalciuria
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3/13. Hypomagnesemia due to renal disease of unknown etiology.

    A young man, investigated because of tetanic convulsions and arthritic pains, was shown to have hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesuria, hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, progressive nephrocalcinosis and chondrocalcinosis. In this syndrome, renal function was normal except for the abnormal excretion of electrolytes. Renal sodium conservation was normal. light and electron microscopic studies of renal biopsy specimens showed the presence of several abnormal tubules. Immunofluorescent staining showed deposits of immunoglobulins in the glomeruli and tubules. Magnesium therapy was started under balance study conditions and resulted in decreased calciuria and complete remission of subjective symptoms. The progression of nephrocalcinosis was halted, and there was some decrease in the intra-articular calcium deposits after two years of continuous oral magnesium therapy. The administration of spironolactone decreased urinary magnesium but did not normalize it, whereas triamterene administration was without effect in this respect. The results of the morphologic and electrolyte balance studies are discussed. The patient was found to exhibit several features which have not been described before in connection with hypomagnesemia of unknown origin.
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keywords = hypercalciuria
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4/13. Familial hypomagnesemia--hypercalciuria and pseudotumor cerebri.

    Approximately 30 patients with familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria have been reported. We describe an 8-year-old girl with cardinal findings of familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria (hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesiuria, hypercalciuria, renal insufficiency, hyperuricemia, elevated serum parathormone, hyposthenuria and nephrocalcinosis), who received combination therapy consisting of magnesium salts, thiazide diuretic and potassium supplementation. At the 4-year follow-up investigation under this treatment, the patient was found to have cerebral pseudotumor (increased intracranial pressure with normal or small ventricles on neuroimaging, no evidence of an intracranial mass and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition) with papilledema and visual field defects. Thiazide therapy was terminated and the cerebral pseudotumor disappeared. The authors hypothesize that cerebral pseudotumor in this patient was related to severe hypocalcemia, as a consequence of profound hypomagnesemia induced by protracted thiazide treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a child with familial hypomagnesemia-hypercalciuria who developed pseudotumor cerebri after thiazide therapy.
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keywords = hypercalciuria
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5/13. Hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: case report and a family study.

    A 7-month-old male infant was referred for investigation after a documented febrile urinary tract infection. His past medical history was characterized by episodes of unexplained fever and mild dehydration. The ultrasound examination of his kidneys demonstrated bilateral diffuse medullary nephrocalcinosis. His serum and urine biochemistry revealed hypomagnesemia (0.4 mmol/l), hyperuricaemia (506 micromol/l), mildly increased iPTH (71 pg/ml) and hypercalciuria (16.0 mg/kg/day). The diagnosis of familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) was confirmed by mutational analysis of the CLDN16 gene, encoding paracellin-1. Sequencing displayed a homozygous Leu151Phe exchange affecting the first extracellular loop of paracellin-1. There were eight family relatives who underwent biochemical analysis, renal ultrasound and genetic investigation for CLDN16 mutations. Five of them were found to be heterozygous for the Leu151Phe mutation. Two heterozygotes (the mother and the maternal grandfather) presented with hypercalciuria. The grandfather had a history of recurrent passage of calculi. These findings point to the role of heterozygous CLDN16 gene mutations in renal pathophysiology. In conclusion, patients suspected of having FHHNC should be screened for CLDN16 mutations, especially with respect to genetic counseling. In addition, heterozygotes at risk should be clinically assessed in order to prevent renal complications of hypercalciuria.
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ranking = 8
keywords = hypercalciuria
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6/13. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis associated with CLDN16 mutations.

    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder, is characterized by the impaired tubular reabsorption of magnesium and calcium in the thick ascending limb of the loop of henle and an eventual progression to end-stage renal disease. Recent studies have reported that this disease is caused by mutations in the CLDN16 gene, which encodes the tight junction protein, paracellin-1. Paracellin-1 belongs to the claudin family and regulates the paracellular transport of magnesium and calcium. Here, we report on two Korean siblings with typical clinical features of FHHNC in association with compound heterozygous mutations, G233C and 800delG, in CLDN16. Their parents were asymptomatic heterozygous carriers of the single mutations. This is the first report of FHHNC in korea, and the mutations reported are novel.
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ranking = 5
keywords = hypercalciuria
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7/13. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: blocking endocytosis restores surface expression of a novel Claudin-16 mutant that lacks the entire C-terminal cytosolic tail.

    Mutations in the gene for Claudin-16 (CLDN16) are linked to familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), a renal Mg2 and Ca2 wasting disorder that leads to progressive kidney failure. More than 20 mutations have been identified in CLDN16, which, with a single exception, affect one of two extracellular loops or one of four transmembrane domains of the encoded protein. Here, we describe a novel missense mutation, Cldn16 L203X, which deletes the entire C-terminal cytosolic domain of the protein. Surface expression of Cldn16 L203X is strongly reduced and the protein is instead found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. ER-retained Cldn16 L203X is subject to proteasomal degradation. Cldn16 L203X present in lysosomes reaches this compartment following transport to the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis increases surface expression of Cldn16 L203X. Thus, endocytosis inhibitors may provide a novel therapeutic approach for FHHNC patients carrying particular Cldn16 mutations.
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ranking = 5
keywords = hypercalciuria
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8/13. Unusual clinical presentation and possible rescue of a novel claudin-16 mutation.

    CONTEXT: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is caused by a dysfunction of Claudin-16 (CLDN16) and characterized by renal wasting of Mg(2 ) and Ca(2 ). OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to study the clinical parameters in suspected FHHNC patients, identify mutations in the CLDN16 gene, and analyze molecular defects associated with the mutant protein. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: CLDN16 genes from two siblings diagnosed with FHHNC were sequenced. Expression and characterization of the mutant protein in renal MDCK cells were studied. OUTCOME MEASURES: Standard urine and serum parameters to diagnose FHHNC were determined. Mutations in the CLDN16 gene were identified. The subcellular distribution of the mutant protein was analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: urine and blood analysis showed signs typical for FHHNC. One patient, in addition, presented with hypocalcemic tetany, a phenomenon so far not described for FHHNC. Both siblings carry a novel mutation in CLDN16, Y207X. The review of medical records showed that hypocalcemia is not uncommon in the early childhood of FHHNC patients. Expressed in MDCK cells, the Y207X mutant is not detected at tight junctions but instead is found in lysosomes and, to a lesser extent, the endoplasmic reticulum. Surface expression can be rescued by inhibiting clathrin-mediated internalization. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that mutations in CLDN16 are considered in childhood hypocalcemia. CLDN16 Y207X is transiently delivered to the plasma membrane but not retained and is rapidly retrieved by internalization. Inhibitors of endocytosis may provide novel therapeutic strategies.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hypercalciuria
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9/13. A familial hypomagnesemia--hypercalciuria (Manz syndrome).

    We report a case of a rare inherited tubular disorder of linked transport of magnesium and calcium at the level of ascending limb of loop of henle, characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, known as "Manz syndrome," who presented with polyuria, nystagmus and recurrent episodes of tetany with radiological evidence of rickets and nephrocalcinosis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = hypercalciuria
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10/13. nephrocalcinosis in siblings--familial hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC syndrome).

    Familial Hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease associated with renal failure. Two girls born of consanguineous parentage aged 16 and 17 presented to us with renal failure, nephrocalcinosis and bone deformities. On evaluation they were found to have hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, increased fractional excretion of magnesium, hypocitraturia, renal failure and elevated PTH. Their parental screening was normal. There were no extra-renal features in them. One sibling had nephrolithiasis and the stone analysis revealed calcium phosphate stones. Both were treated with sodium bicarbonate, thiazides, calcitriol and calcium carbonate. They did not require dialysis during hospital stay. Both of them were treated conservatively. They are on regular outpatient follow up. The primary defect in this syndrome is impaired paracellular reabsorption of magnesium and calcium in the medullary thick ascending limb. Mutations in the PCLN-1gene which encodes for the tight junction protein paracellin -1 is identified as the underlying genetic defect. Ocular abnormalities and deafness are the commonly reported associations. End stage renal failure usually occurs in second to third decade. Renal transplantation is the definite treatment.
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ranking = 5
keywords = hypercalciuria
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