Cases reported "Malaria"

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1/12. pancytopenia resulting from hemophagocytosis in malaria.

    pancytopenia in an acutely ill child is commonly a result of bone marrow suppression. Rarely pancytopenia is a manifestation of inappropriate macrophage activation associated with hemophagocytosis. Viral infections account for most cases of secondary hemophagocytosis. We report a case of malaria-associated hemophagocytosis in a child from an endemic area. Systemic parasitic infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and infection-associated hemophagocytosis. In this rare subgroup of hemophagocytosis, malaria caused by plasmodium falciparum is the most common parasitic infection
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2/12. Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis induced by malaria infection in a child with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    Since the first description of infection-associated hemophagocytosis (IAHS), the list of precipitating infectious agents causing hemophagocytic syndrome has grown. A lymphohistiocytic proliferation with hemophagocytosis may develop as a result of macrophage activation, viral or bacterial infection, parasitic infestations, or malignancy. The authors report on a 3-year-old boy with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), who developed IAHS during malaria infection. Hemophagocytic syndromes may complicate the course of LCH and cause diagnostics problems. Malaria is one of many infections that can precipitate secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
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keywords = macrophage
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3/12. Bcl-2 and immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in patients with malaria related chronic splenomegaly.

    Two cases of malaria related chronic splenomegaly, one with tropical splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (TSLVL) and the other with hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) were analyzed by cytology, histology, karyotyping, immunophenotyping, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of bcl-2/JH and FR3/JH rearrangements on blood and bone marrow samples, at diagnosis and 12 months after malarial prophylaxis. The reported data suggest that the detection of FR3/JH rearrangement might contribute to the diagnosis of TSLVL in patients with malaria related chronic splenomegaly, for whom bcl-2/JH rearrangement may be a common molecular event.
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keywords = bone
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4/12. Use of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements to show clonal lymphoproliferation in hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly.

    In africa, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS), which is also known as tropical splenomegaly syndrome, can be associated with a prominent lymphocytosis in blood and bone marrow that is difficult to distinguish clinically from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). The observation that some patients with HMS become resistant to treatment with anti-malarial drugs has led to the suggestion that HMS may evolve into a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder. To test this hypothesis, 22 Ghanaian patients with HMS and/or lymphocytosis were categorised by degree of response to proguanil according to standard clinical criteria, and dna was extracted from peripheral blood cells and screened for rearrangements of the Jh region of the immunoglobulin gene with a dna probe. Clonal rearrangements of the Jh region were found in all 3 patients with no response, in none of 13 patients with sustained response, and in 2 of 6 patients with moderate response or relapse on proguanil therapy. The detection of such rearrangements, and hence clonal lymphoproliferation in individuals with clinical features intermediate between HMS and CLL, supports the hypothesis that HMS may evolve into a malignant lymphoproliferative disorder.
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keywords = bone
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5/12. diagnosis of mixed plasmodium malariae and P. vivax infection in a development aid volunteer by examination of bone-marrow specimens by real-time PCR.

    Mixed plasmodium malariae and P. vivax infections in humans are reported very infrequently. The case of a 27-year-old male who sustained malaria quartana/tertiana caused by an unbalanced mixed P. malariae-P. vivax infection is reported here. Conventional tests and serology for malarial parasites were uniformly negative. Identification and quantification of the parasites were accomplished by examining bone-marrow specimens using specific real-time TaqMan PCR.
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keywords = bone
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6/12. Hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma following seven malaria infections.

    Hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a clinicopathological entity associated with an immunocompromised status in approximately 25% of patients. Herein is described a case of HSTL in a 53-year-old Brazilian man with seven previous malaria infections, initially misdiagnosed as a hyperreactive splenomegaly due to chronic malaria. A characteristic lymphoid infiltrate was observed in spleen, liver and bone marrow sinusoids/sinuses. Neoplastic cells had a CD45RO , CD2 , CD7 , CD3 , CD5-, CD8 , CD56 , perforin , FasL-negative, T-cell receptor (TCR)alphabeta-negative, TCRgammadelta profile. Analyses of gamma and delta TCR rearrangements confirmed diagnosis of gammadelta T-cell lymphoma by detecting VgammaI/Vdelta1-Jdelta1 clonal rearrangements. Sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for plasmodium falciparum, Epstein-Barr virus and herpesvirus-8 failed to demonstrate infection. The disease progressed to a fatal outcome following cutaneous infiltration and leukemic proliferation. The authors also comment on the association of lymphoma and infection, focusing on PCR diagnosis of TCRgamma and delta clonal rearrangements and the presumed pathogenic events leading to HSTL in the context of chronic malaria infection. Initial lymphomagenic stages might not be direct consequences of antigenic stimulation of Vdelta1 T-cells, but might depend on interactions between gammadelta T and B cells during cooperative or regulatory responses to Plasmodium sp.
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keywords = bone
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7/12. Diffuse lung uptake of technetium-99m sulfur colloid in malaria.

    Diffuse lung accumulation of colloid was seen on liver-spleen imaging in a patient during the acute stage of vivax malaria. A repeat study was performed following successful therapy and showed complete disappearance of lung uptake. Possible mechanisms for this unusual observation are discussed, with the conclusion that this phenomenon is probably related to increased reticuloendothelial system activity, due to a malaria-induced increase in the pulmonary macrophages.
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ranking = 0.99977206468026
keywords = macrophage
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8/12. Electron microscopic study of phagocytosis in human spleen in falciparum malaria.

    The ultrastructure of the spleen of a patient who died of natural infection of plasmodium falciparum was studied with emphasis on phagocytosis. Parasitized erythrocytes were shown to interact with the heterogenous populations of phagocytic cells. phagocytosis occurred predominantly in macrophages than endothelial cells and immature forms of parasites were preferentially phagocytosed. Splenic trapping, pitting and destruction of both infected and noninfected erythrocytes were demonstrated. Other forms of interaction between phagocytic cells and parasitized erythrocytes observed include complex interdigitation, association of loose and tight phagosomes, and preferential sites of adherence, the significance of which need further investigation.
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keywords = macrophage
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9/12. spleen in falciparum malaria: ultrastructural study.

    An ultrastructural study was undertaken of the spleen of 13 year-old-boy who died of falciparum malaria. The spleen revealed the following: both parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes are phagocytosed in large numbers by macrophages, littoral and reticular cells. Blood congestion and trapping of parasitized erythrocytes are commonly seen in splenic sinusoids and cords. erythrocytes forming rosette structure around immuno-presenting cells is observed. The results of this study provide evidence that the mechanisms underlying splenic host defence in malaria include both immunological and non-immunological interaction with erythrocytes. Splenic trapping of parasitized erythrocytes is an important defence mechanism and the phagocytosis of erythrocytes probably accounts for anaemia.
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ranking = 0.99977206468026
keywords = macrophage
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10/12. neutropenia associated with dual antimalarial chemoprophylaxis--use of bone-marrow culture as an aid in further drug management.

    Bone-marrow culture in soft agar was used to determine the cause of neutropenia in a visitor to tanzania who had been taking both amodiaquine and proguanil for antimalarial prophylaxis. Desethyl-amodiaquine, a major metabolite of amodiaquine (but not amodiaquine itself, proguanil, cycloguanil or chloroquine) was implicated. Supplementary studies using amodiaquine binding techniques supported the notion that the parent compound, amodiaquine, was not the cause of the neutropenia. The bone-marrow culture technique proved useful in deciding further anti-malarial prophylaxis and in formulating the choice of curative antimalarial therapy, should this have proved necessary. The procedure may help in the managing other such patients with presumed drug-induced blood dyscrasias when the choice of appropriate and effective antimalarial drugs is limited.
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ranking = 0.0011396765986961
keywords = bone
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