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1/4. Repositioning of the gingival margin by extrusion.

    In this case report, orthodontic intervention was used to move the gingival margin of a maxillary canine incisally by almost 9 mm to mimic a lateral incisor. Increasing the thickness of the labial plate of bone of the canine and subsequently increasing the thickness of the attached gingiva before extrusion prevented gingival recession at a later stage. In many situations, orthodontic treatment can achieve results that could not be attained by restorations and other means of cosmetic dentistry, especially when dealing with gingival margins and gingival height. A step-by-step approach to achieving these treatment objectives is described.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dentistry
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2/4. Restorative and Invisalign: a new approach.

    This case report describes an interdisciplinary treatment approach using the Invisalign System (Align technology, Inc., Santa Clara, california) for orthodontics in combination with restorative dentistry. This combined approach was selected for an optimum esthetic and functional result. This case report demonstrates how a restorative case can be improved with prerestorative orthodontic alignment. The Invisalign System was used for opening the bite anteriorly, space distribution, and midline correction. The restorative dentistry procedures involved veneering to enhance the maxillary incisor length-to-width ratio and provide anterior guidance. The cosmetic alternative treatment modality to conventional fixed orthodontics allowed the clinician to accomplish the prerestorative orthodontic goals to help meet the desires of an esthetically conscientious patient.
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ranking = 2
keywords = dentistry
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3/4. Two- and three-dimensional orthodontic imaging using limited cone beam-computed tomography.

    Considerable progress has been made in diagnostic, medical imaging devices such as computed tomography (CT). However, these devices are not used routinely in dentistry and orthodontics because of high cost, large space requirements and the high amount of radiation involved. A device using computed tomography technology has been developed for dental use called a limited cone beam dental compact-CT (3DX). The aim of this article is to demonstrate the usefulness of 3DX imaging for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. We present three cases: (1) one case shows delayed eruption of the upper left second premolar, (2) the second case shows severe impaction of a maxillary second bicuspid; and (3) the third case shows temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). In the tooth impaction cases, the CT images provided more precise information than conventional radiographic images such as improved observation of the long axis of the tooth, root condition, and overlap with bone. In the TMD case, clear and detailed temporomandibular joint images were observed and pre- and posttreatment condylar positions were easily compared. We conclude that 3DX images provide useful information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dentistry
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4/4. Photographic templates (the positive-negative technique).

    Uses of the positive-negative technique are as follows: 1. Study of soft-tissue changes in purely orthodontic cases. 2. In conjunction with a visual treatment objective plan as presented by Reed Holdaway. 3. In the posteroanterior cephalogram, to study changes in the lip form and the alar base changes which occur in surgical and purely orthodontic procedures done to the maxilla when the vertical dimension is reduced or increase. 4. In prosthetic dentistry, for determining proper lip position. 5. In rhinoplasty procedures, to determine the most desirable profile for the patient. 6. In consultation, for better conveying to the patient what can possibly be done to change his dental-facial contours and also give the patient a choice as to how he might like to look. 7. In research, to study soft-tissue changes and long-term case results. 8. In teaching students of cephalometrics the location of the hard-tissue skeleton and its relationship to the soft tissue of the maxillofacial complex.
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ranking = 1
keywords = dentistry
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