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1/119. Orthodontic considerations in individuals with down syndrome: a case report.

    The skeletal and soft tissue features, aberrations in dental development, and periodontal and caries characteristics of down syndrome related to orthodontic treatment are discussed. A case report describing the successful orthodontic treatment of a 13-year-old boy with down syndrome and a severe malocclusion is presented.
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2/119. Early treatment of a severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    This case report shows the effects of functional therapy at an early age in a severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion. Favorable changes in the profile and in the lip seal were achieved. The dental irregularity was treated by fixed appliances and extraction therapy. The patient and her parents were pleased with the final outcome.
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3/119. Activator and Begg appliance management of a severe Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion.

    A male patient aged 12 years 11 months presented with the chief complaint of prominent, spaced upper teeth and was keen to overcome his dental problem.
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4/119. Elongated stylohyoid process: a report of three cases.

    The stylohyoid process is part of the stylohyoid chain--the styloid process, the stylohyoid ligament, and the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone. The stylohyoid chain is derived from the second branchial arch. Mineralisation of the stylohyoid ligament and ossification at the tip may increase the length of the styloid process. An elongated stylohyoid or styloid process is considered to be the source of craniofacial and cervical pain commonly known as Eagle's syndrome. In some instances the stylohyoid process may be considerably elongated, yet remain asymptomatic. This paper reports three patients with elongated stylohyoid processes discovered incidentally on routine radiographic examination.
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5/119. Pediatric dental treatment for children with headache.

    This case demonstrates the safe step by step approach to treatment of pediatric patients with muscle spasm headache. If there are any neurologic signs or the LiteSplint is not effective, then a laboratory orthopedic appliance therapy may not be effective and a neurologic referral is necessary. It is always required to review the latest physical exam with the parent and physician if the symptoms do not improve in an orderly sequence. The LiteSplint acts as a screening and diagnostic aid in determining the source of head pain. For very young patients (three to six years of age) who may not be able to easily tolerate an appliance, an extra heavy coating of flowable composite that can act as a sealant on the primary molars, e.g. Revolution, may open the bite enough to alleviate headache or earache symptoms. Dental clinicians can perform a valuable service for their patients if headaches from deep bite malocclusions can be diagnosed and treated at an early age.
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ranking = 4
keywords = dental
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6/119. Reconstruction of an alveolar cleft for orthodontic tooth movement.

    Bone grafting to repair an alveolar cleft has long been an integral part of the treatment of persons with unilateral and bilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus. The presence of the cleft places a limitation on the orthodontist who would like to move teeth in the area of the cleft. Various grafting materials have been placed in alveolar clefts in an attempt to solve this problem. The case to be presented is a patient with a Class II, Division 2, malocclusion with a left unilateral alveolar cleft and a repaired cleft lip. Ten months after initiating orthodontic treatment, a free gingival graft procedure was performed because of insufficient vestibular depth and the narrow width of the keratinized attached gingiva at the left maxillary lateral and central incisor region. Two months after periodontal surgery, a mix of decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft and a granular bioactive glass graft material (1:1) were applied subperiostally on the buccal aspect of the edentulous cleft region. Six months later, the teeth adjacent to the grafted alveolar cleft were orthodontically moved into the edentulous area. The treatment results indicated that orthodontic, periodontal, and surgical interventions resulted in a successful closure of the alveolar cleft as well as improved periodontal conditions of the teeth adjacent to the cleft area. From the orthodontic point of view, tooth movement can be achieved successfully into a bone graft made of freeze-dried bone and bioactive glass.
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keywords = gingival
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7/119. Case report: Long-term outcome of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with rapid palatal expansion and cervical traction.

    A case of a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with reduced transpalatal width and unfavorable axial inclinations of the posterior teeth is reported. Rapid palatal expansion (RPE) was used for maxillary enhancement and molar distalization therapy to correct the anteroposterior dental discrepancy. This case report illustrates the results of the method of treatment used with a long-term (16-year-posttreatment) follow-up.
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8/119. Orthodontic management of a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    A male patient with a dental malocclusion presented with epidermolysis bullosa, a group of genetically determined diseases characterised by abnormal fragility of the skin and mucosa. Described is the management of the patient utilising Begg light Wire fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment.
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9/119. An extended three-stage treatment to correct a severe skeletal and dental discrepancy.

    A report of a case of extended treatment of a patient with severe mandibular retrognathism and an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion. Initial fixed appliance treatment reduced incisor protrusion. A second phase utilising a Teuscher appliance achieved improved facial and dental relations through excellent mandibular growth. A third phase of fixed Edgewise treatment finalised dental relations.
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ranking = 6
keywords = dental
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10/119. Complex orthodontic problems: the orthognathic patient with temporomandibular disorders.

    The diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) remain controversial despite considerable research and publication in this area. The relationship of these problems to dental and skeletal malocclusion is equally debatable. Recent studies suggest that although malocclusion may have a role, it is a small one. Accordingly, treatment of TMD with occlusion-altering therapy, such as orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, should be limited to specific situations. This report discusses the management of patients with coexisting TMD and skeletal malocclusion. Current concepts in clinical and radiographic diagnosis are discussed, as well as an overview of noninvasive therapy. A case report is used to illustrate an approach to diagnosis and treatment planning in an individual with active TMD and a skeletal malocclusion requiring orthognathic surgery for correction.
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keywords = dental
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