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1/61. Class II malocclusion correction: an American board of orthodontics case.

    A Class II open bite malocclusion with a narrowed maxilla, an increased lower anterior facial height, and a tooth size discrepancy are presented. The malocclusion was treated nonextraction in 2 phases. The mixed dentition phase of treatment was maxillary molar uprighting followed by a bonded rapid palatal expander. The vertical dimension was managed with a vertical pull chincup. The full appliance phase included buildups of the maxillary lateral incisors and mechanics to control lower incisor position.
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2/61. Reconstruction of an alveolar cleft for orthodontic tooth movement.

    Bone grafting to repair an alveolar cleft has long been an integral part of the treatment of persons with unilateral and bilateral clefts of the lip and alveolus. The presence of the cleft places a limitation on the orthodontist who would like to move teeth in the area of the cleft. Various grafting materials have been placed in alveolar clefts in an attempt to solve this problem. The case to be presented is a patient with a Class II, Division 2, malocclusion with a left unilateral alveolar cleft and a repaired cleft lip. Ten months after initiating orthodontic treatment, a free gingival graft procedure was performed because of insufficient vestibular depth and the narrow width of the keratinized attached gingiva at the left maxillary lateral and central incisor region. Two months after periodontal surgery, a mix of decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft and a granular bioactive glass graft material (1:1) were applied subperiostally on the buccal aspect of the edentulous cleft region. Six months later, the teeth adjacent to the grafted alveolar cleft were orthodontically moved into the edentulous area. The treatment results indicated that orthodontic, periodontal, and surgical interventions resulted in a successful closure of the alveolar cleft as well as improved periodontal conditions of the teeth adjacent to the cleft area. From the orthodontic point of view, tooth movement can be achieved successfully into a bone graft made of freeze-dried bone and bioactive glass.
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3/61. Treatment of a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with a severe unilateral lingual crossbite with combined orthodontic/orthognathic surgery.

    A 24-year-old woman had a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with a severe unilateral crossbite. The crossbite was due partially to the maxilla being much wider than the mandible, allowing the mandibular left canine and first and second premolars to overerupt, impinging on the palatal tissue in habitual occlusion. The maxillary left segment from the lateral incisor to the first molar also overerupted producing 2 planes of occlusion. The malocclusion was treated successfully with comprehensive orthodontics, combined with a 2 piece Lefort I osteotomy procedure, a 3 tooth mandibular segmental osteotomy procedure, and a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy procedure.
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4/61. The Royal london Space Planning: an integration of space analysis and treatment planning: Part II: The effect of other treatment procedures on space.

    The Royal london Space Planning process is carried out in 2 stages. The first stage, assessing the space required to attain the treatment objectives, was described in Part I of this report, published earlier. In Part II, the process of integrating space analysis with treatment planning continues with consideration of the effects other treatment procedures have on space. These procedures include tooth enlargement or reduction, tooth extraction, the creation of space for prosthetic replacement, and mesial and distal molar movement. The effects of favorable and unfavorable growth are also considered. A brief case report is presented to demonstrate use of the Royal london Space Planning.
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5/61. Orthodontic tooth movement after extraction of previously autotransplanted maxillary canines and ridge augmentation.

    A case report is detailed in which autotransplanted maxillary canines were removed and the spaces closed. Substantial surrounding bone loss was associated with the upper right canine, and a bone graft was needed to reestablish normal dentoalveolar ridge morphology. Bone was taken from the maxillary tuberosity and placed in the canine extraction site, fixed with a bone screw, and covered with GoreTex. Seven months after placement of the bone graft, the GoreTex and stabilizing screw were removed to allow for consolidation of the bone. The upper left canine and lower second premolars were extracted, and fixed appliances were placed in both arches to align the teeth and close the spaces. Protraction of the upper right first premolar and retraction of the lateral incisor into the graft site were kept slow and constant with continued periodontal assessment. During the space closure, there was some concern that the bone in the graft site might resorb, leaving the teeth with compromised periodontal support. However, no significant periodontal attachment loss occurred despite ongoing concern about the amount of keratinized tissue. Perhaps the relatively slow rate of tooth movement provided for bone to be maintained and recreated ahead of the tooth. Almost complete closure of the upper canine extraction spaces was achieved. The upper premolars were substituted for the maxillary canines, and unfavorable prosthetic options were thus avoided. The lower arch was aligned, and the extraction spaces completely closed.
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6/61. Treatment of a Class II Division 2 malocclusion with space reopening for a single-tooth implant.

    This case report describes the treatment of an adolescent girl with a skeletal Class II Division 2 malocclusion and impinging overbite. One of 2 previously extracted premolars had to be replaced by a single-tooth implant after adequate space reopening. An optimal overbite-overjet relationship was achieved through significant intrusion and proclination of maxillary and mandibular incisors. A horizontally impacted mandibular second molar was repositioned to ensure a 2-molar arch integrity. Resolution of the gingival smile line and favorable facial changes were also obtained.
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7/61. Extraction as a treatment alternative follows repeated trauma in a severely handicapped patient.

    Handicapped patients with protruding maxillary incisors are prone to repeated dental trauma. A 13-year-old girl with cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation and seizure disorder was referred to our department for restoring the traumatized anterior teeth. Despite drug combination, the frequency of seizure attack was around 10 times a month. The oral examination showed multiple caries, gingival hyperplasia, class II malocclusion with 14 mm overjet and deep overbite. During the first 3 years of a 7-year follow-up period, six episodes of anterior tooth trauma due to seizure attack occurred. The trauma-related treatment performed included endodontic therapy, multiple composite restorations, apical repositional flap, and finally extraction of all four upper incisors with fabrication of a semi-fixed band-retained denture. The denture restored normal overbite and overjet with improved esthetics. For 4 years following the fabrication of denture, no trauma occurred to the anterior teeth in later seizure attacks. Considering inadequate control of seizure disorder, little ability of the patient to receive comprehensive orthodontic treatment, poor prognosis of restorations, and possible future injuries, the removal of non-functional, nonesthetic, trauma-susceptible incisor teeth can be justified as an alternative to tooth preservation.
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8/61. Treatment and long-term follow-up of a patient with hereditary gingival fibromatosis: a case report.

    This report addresses the complex nature of oral diagnosis, treatment and long-term case management in the hereditary form of recurrent gingival fibromatosis. case management is discussed in relation to a 13-year-old girl who presented with recurrent, progressive gingival enlargement requiring consecutive periodontal and orthodontic treatment. The initial course of treatment included 4-quadrant gingivectomy with reverse bevel incisions, followed by orthodontics. Microscopic examination of the gingivectomy specimens supported the clinical diagnosis. Three years later, recurrence of the condition was observed in all quadrants. To facilitate orthodontic tooth movement and to achieve optimal esthetics, another full-mouth gingivectomy was performed. There was no recurrence of the condition a year later. It is recommended that patients with this condition be monitored closely after gingivectomy, so that the treatment requirements of localized areas can be addressed as needed.
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9/61. Maxillary canine displacement; further twists in the tale.

    This report describes two cases seen over a 5-year period, each with a labially impacted maxillary canine found in close proximity to the adjacent first permanent premolar, which had a deviated palatal root. The issue as to whether the premolar root deviation either produced the canine impaction or vice versa is discussed, both with reference to the processes considered to be involved in normal tooth eruption, and to three previously published similar cases.
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10/61. Problems associated with restoration of dentitions after orthodontic treatment using anterior tooth space.

    Three case reports are presented to illustrate some problems associated with restoration of dentitions following orthodontic treatment using anterior tooth space. These include the projecting premaxilla, conversion of lateral incisors to resemble central incisors and excess residual space.
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