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1/38. Treatment of a Class III anterior open bite malocclusion: a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical approach.

    Case report of an adult Caucasian female aged 23 years and nine months who complained of some difficulty in chewing and talking. Patient was diagnosed to have a mild Class III skeletal malocclusion with an anterior open bite of 4 mm. Treatment included combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical approach. Surgery included surgically assisted maxillary expansion, advancement and impaction, a mandibular setback and a vertical, antero-posterior reduction genioplasty. The present case report illustrates a coordinated orthodontic and orthognathic surgical approach in the treatment of skeletal open bite deformities.
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2/38. Bilateral open bite in dicygotic twins. A combined orthodontic-prosthetic approach.

    CASE REPORT: Dizygotic twins, male, 25 years of age, required treatment for an identical orthodontic diagnosis. diagnosis: Class III malocclusion with mesial molar relation and frontal edge-to-edge bite, lyrate upper dental arch, grouped cross-bite and bilateral open bite in the molar and bicuspid region, retention and lingual inclination respectively of the lower left second bicuspid, mesial inclination of both lower first molars. The severity of the malocclusion differed in the two brothers. THERAPY: Orthodontic treatment was successful concerning the transversal expansion and alignment of the maxillary dental arch, the functional relation of the anterior teeth, the transversally correct relation of the upper and lower dental arches and, following surgical removal of the lower second bicuspids, the reduction of crowding in the lower arch. An attempt was made to upright the molars in the mandibular arch and to close the lateral open bite by means of vertical elastics. However, the 10-month period of resistance to the therapy suggested, after a tongue protrusion habit had been ruled out, a diagnosis of ankylosis. Further orthodontic treatment was renounced and a prosthetic solution was pursued instead: the teeth in infraocclusion were treated with full ceramic overlays and, in the regions with residual gaps, with pontics (Empress II, Ivoclar, Schaan, liechtenstein), after minimally invasive preparation (confined to removal of existing fillings). CONCLUSION: This case is particularly interesting because the infrapositioned molars in both brothers were very likely due to ankylosis, suggesting a genetic cause.
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3/38. Treatment of severe mandibular prognathism in combination with maxillary hypoplasia: case report.

    We performed a Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy (Obwegeser-Dal Pont) combined with mandibular anterior segmental osteotomy without tooth extraction for a patient with severe mandibular prognathism accompanied by a hypoplastic maxilla, anterior open bite and normal anterior mandibular vertical dimension. The results of facial appearance and occlusion were excellent. This combined surgical method appears to be satisfactory for treating severe mandibular prognathism with hypoplastic maxilla.
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4/38. Improving quality of life with a team approach: a case report.

    An adolescent female who presented amelogenesis imperfecta with severe anterior open bite, long face, facial asymmetry, high angle, and Class III skeletal pattern was treated with an interdisciplinary (orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, and prosthodontics) treatment approach. Presurgical orthodontic treatment was followed by surgical maxillary posterior impaction with anterior advancement and mandibular setback operation with vertical chin reduction and genioplasty. After the surgery, anterior ceramic laminate veneers and posterior full ceramic onlay-crowns were performed. The results showed that function and esthetics were achieved successfully with interdisciplinary collaboration.
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5/38. Thin-plate spline graphical analysis of the mandible in mandibular prognathism.

    The chin cup has been used to treat skeletal mandibular prognathism in growing patients for 200 years. The pull on the orthopedic-force chin cup is oriented along a line from the mandibular symphysis to the mandibular condyle. Various levels of success have been reported with this restraining device. The vertical chin cup produces strong vertical compression stress on the maxillary molar regions when the direction of traction is 20 degrees more vertical than the chin-condyle line. This treatment strategy may prevent relapse due to counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible. In this report, we describe a new strategy for using chin-cup therapy involving thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric roentgenograms to visualize transformation of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. A case of mandibular prognathism treated with a chin cup and a case of dental Class III malocclusion without orthodontic treatment are described. The case analysis illustrates that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopedic therapy, and that visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.
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6/38. Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders.

    A 22-year-old woman had a Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders. A clicking sound was noted in the temporomandibular joint on the posterior crossbite side during jaw opening, and she complained of pain in the masticatory muscles on both sides. The articular disc on the crossbite side was displaced anteriorly without reduction. The patient was treated orthodontically with edgewise appliances and surgically with LeFort I and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomies. The result of the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment was facial symmetry and optimal occlusion. The displaced articular disc moved into a normal position, and most of the temporomandibular disorder symptoms improved. At the 2.5-year follow-up, the temporomandibular joint conditions had been maintained.
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7/38. Use of distraction osteogenesis in cleft palate patients.

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been used recently to correct maxillary hypoplasia with predictable and stable results. In patients with clefts of the secondary palate, DO can also be used to aid in vertical alveolus augmentation and rapid orthodontic tooth movement. If an osteotomized dental arch can be transported to a new position without complications, it would reduce or eliminate the need for a secondary bone graft to the cleft alveolus in cleft patients and help prevent dentoalveolar defects by approximating the native alveolar bone and gingiva. Mobilizing a segment in the dentoalveolar region also results in the creation of new bone and attached gingiva. This report shows that the application of DO for skeletal expansion and rapid movement of tooth-bone segments should receive more careful consideration in the treatment of patients with clefts of the palate.
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8/38. rehabilitation of partially edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension.

    A case of rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with loss of vertical dimension is presented here. This patient presents with a Class III dental and skeletal malocclusion with an anterior cross-bite. The objective of this case report is to demonstrate that an accurate assessment of vertical dimension is necessary for good rehabilitation. The original vertical dimension was determined by a series of tests including, kinesiographic, electromyographic and transcutaneous electronic neural stimulation (TENS). Subsequently, the lost vertical dimension was re-established orthodontically. These examinations revealed a general hypertonicity of masticatory muscles due to the lost vertical dimension. Additionally, radiographs of the temporomandibular joint showed anteriorly displaced condyles. Following the completion of orthodontic treatment osseointegrated implants were placed to restore the dental arches.
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9/38. A European Board of orthodontics case report. Case category: severe skeletal discrepancy.

    OBJECTIVES: this 18.1 year-old girl presented with a chief complaint of progressive worsening of facial and dental esthetics, crowding, headache and facial pain. MATERIALS AND methods: clinically, she was at the end of her growth and exhibited a severe facial asymmetry, but with normal sagittal and vertical cranial relationships. Clicking in the right TMJ was evident. This was accompanied by a deviation upon opening, and pain in the joint. The pain she experienced during jaw movement, and upon palpation, was significant. There was a shift to the right from centric relation to intercuspal position. Intraorally, the tissues were normal, with mild tetracycline staining, still present primary canines, impacted third molars and upper permanent canines. Her first molars had fillings. Orthodontically, her occlusion was a severe Class III subdivision left, with a severe right-side crossbite, lower midline deviation to the right 6 mm, and a 1 mm lateral shift in intercuspal position. She also exhibited severe crowding and asymmetry in both arches. The sequence of her treatment was as follows: (a) extraction of primary canines and impacted third molars, surgical exposure of impacted canines, (b) lower occlusal splint for TMJ dysfunction and an upper arch fixed appliance for ideal alignment and leveling, (c) upper occlusal splint for the maintenance of TMJ function and lower arch fixed appliance for ideal alignment and leveling, (d) surgical skeletal correction, (e) post-surgical orthodontic finishing, (f) post-treatment retention.
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10/38. Combined prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment of a patient with a Class III skeletal malocclusion: a clinical report.

    This clinical report describes a multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of a patient with Angle Class III skeletal malocclusion and decreased occlusal vertical dimension. An overlay removable partial denture (ORPD) was used to reestablish the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). After the trial and adjustment period, the reduced lower anterior dentofacial height was orthodontically increased and the negative horizontal overlap was corrected. A maxillary precision attachment RPD and a mandibular fixed partial denture and metal ceramic crowns were fabricated to satisfy esthetic and functional requirements.
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