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1/438. Orthodontic considerations in individuals with down syndrome: a case report.

    The skeletal and soft tissue features, aberrations in dental development, and periodontal and caries characteristics of down syndrome related to orthodontic treatment are discussed. A case report describing the successful orthodontic treatment of a 13-year-old boy with down syndrome and a severe malocclusion is presented. ( info)

2/438. Early treatment of a severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    This case report shows the effects of functional therapy at an early age in a severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion. Favorable changes in the profile and in the lip seal were achieved. The dental irregularity was treated by fixed appliances and extraction therapy. The patient and her parents were pleased with the final outcome. ( info)

3/438. Identical twins treated differently.

    This case study is intended to demonstrate the effects of two different orthodontic treatment methods on one set of identical twins. ( info)

4/438. Activator and Begg appliance management of a severe Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion.

    A male patient aged 12 years 11 months presented with the chief complaint of prominent, spaced upper teeth and was keen to overcome his dental problem. ( info)

5/438. Elongated stylohyoid process: a report of three cases.

    The stylohyoid process is part of the stylohyoid chain--the styloid process, the stylohyoid ligament, and the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone. The stylohyoid chain is derived from the second branchial arch. Mineralisation of the stylohyoid ligament and ossification at the tip may increase the length of the styloid process. An elongated stylohyoid or styloid process is considered to be the source of craniofacial and cervical pain commonly known as Eagle's syndrome. In some instances the stylohyoid process may be considerably elongated, yet remain asymptomatic. This paper reports three patients with elongated stylohyoid processes discovered incidentally on routine radiographic examination. ( info)

6/438. Orthodontic-prosthetic treatment to replace maxillary incisors exfoliated because of improper use of orthodontic elastics: a case report.

    This article describes the iatrogenic exfoliation of maxillary central incisors following the improper use of orthodontic elastic bands. The unsecured rubber band had migrated apically and caused an almost "bloodless extraction" of both maxillary central incisors. A combined orthodontic-prosthetic solution was used to replace the lost incisors. ( info)

7/438. Surgical cephalometric prediction tracing for the alteration of the occlusal plane by means of rotation of the maxillomandibular complex.

    The surgical cephalometric prediction tracing involving the alteration of the occlusal plane differs from the conventional surgical prediction tracing. When conventional surgical prediction is developed, the final occlusal plane is dictated by the occlusal plane of the mandible, with or without autorotation. The mandible (and therefore the mandibular occlusal plane) will rotate around a point at or just posterior to the condyle. This principle is not adhered to in treatment planning requiring rotation of the maxillomandibular complex and consequent alteration of the occlusal plane. The aim of this paper is to present a method for developing a surgical cephalometric prediction tracing involving rotation of the maxillomandibular complex. ( info)

8/438. Nonsurgical correction of a class II malocclusion with a vertical growth tendency.

    malocclusion, with a superimposed vertical growth tendency, is often difficult to treat without a combined surgical orthodontic approach. Certain situations, however, may preclude surgery as a treatment option. The following case report demonstrates the use of orthodontic mechanotherapy alone in successfully treating a patient that exhibited a Class II Division I malocclusion with a high mandibular plane angle and vertical growth tendency. ( info)

9/438. Class II Division 2 malocclusion: genetics or environment? A case report of monozygotic twins.

    A pair of monozygotic twins with different malocclusion phenotypes (Class II Division 2 and Class II Division 1) is presented. The case report supports the hypothesis that heredity is not the sole controlling factor in the etiology of Class II Division 2 malocclusion. ( info)

10/438. Severe high Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion with vertical maxillary excess and gummy smile: a case report.

    Severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion with vertical maxillary excess and gummy smiles can be treated in several ways. Early orthodontic treatment with vertical control may decrease the malocclusion as well as improve the appearance. In severe cases, orthognathic surgery might be the optimal solution. The following case report describes a patient with a severe gummy smile, where the final esthetic improvement was achieved by using a periodontal procedure after orthodontic treatment. ( info)
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