Cases reported "Mandibular Injuries"

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1/31. Reconstruction of the horizontal rami of the mandible following avulsion in childhood.

    A 7-year-old boy was involved in a road traffic accident in October 1971, and apparently had been dragged along face downwards with resultant avulsion of the entire horizontal mandibular rami, and most of the mandibular alveolar soft tissue and teeth. Repair by metal implants was attempted but these proved unsatisfactory, and soft tissue replacement for the missing alveolus was carried out by flap raised from arm. Rib grafting was carried out on three occasions at almost yearly intervals, but each time, probably owing to vascular insufficiency, non-union (or more correctly non-replacement) occurred in the left canine region. To "import" a new blood supply, and free some of the scar tissue, a compound muscle/bone/skin flap bearing the clavicle and sternomastoid muscle was transposed to the mandibular bed. This form of grafting was used extensively in world war i to repair facial gunshot wounds, and the transposed blood supply enabled success in the pre-antibiotic period. Bony union is now satisfactory 5 years after injuries and dentures have been recently fitted; speech is normal, the child's facial contours acceptable, and mastication has been satisfactory during this period.
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2/31. Simultaneous reconstruction of the area of the temporo-mandibular joint including the ramus of the mandible in a posttraumatic case. A case report.

    A new technique for the simultaneous reconstruction of the glenoid fossa and the ramus of the mandible is described. By combining and adapting procedures already described, the missing bone of the zygomatic arch, temporo-mandibular joint and ramus was replaced in one operation in a post-traumatic case. The indication for this operation is discussed. It is rather limited. The technique can be used for reconstruction of skeletal defects after tumour resection and in congenital aplasias of this region.
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3/31. Nine-year follow-up of successful placement of endosseous implants in a mandibular bone graft.

    Facial trauma injuries secondary to gunshot wounds present a unique challenge. These wounds are avulsive and typically involve the destruction of soft tissue with bone loss. A technique in bone transplantation is that of particulate cancellous bone and marrow. Initial form and stability can be provided by a titanium mesh tray or reconstruction plates while the graft undergoes maturation and consolidation. dental implants can then be placed in this grafted site to provide stabilization for a functional and comfortable prosthesis and for the support of the peri-oral soft tissues.
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4/31. Dislocation of the mandible: a case report.

    Dislocation of the mandible is a possible complication of direct tracheal laryngoscopy. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is unique in that any movement of the bone always causes movement in both joints simultaneously. The entire TMJ is surrounded by a ligamentous capsule and is stabilized by 3 ligaments. Four muscles of mastication move the mandible with great power. The lateral pterygoid muscle has nearly horizontal muscular fibers and is chiefly responsible for dislocating the mandibular condyle and articular disc past the articular eminence into the infratemporal fossa, causing the patient great pain and distress. If mandibular dislocation should occur, prompt recognition and treatment of the dislocation is recommended. There are steps, used by dentists, which can be employed by the nurse anesthetist to relocate the mandible. The technique for intraoral bimanual relocation of the mandible is described.
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5/31. rehabilitation of a patient with severe dentoalveolar injuries: a case report with a 10-year follow-up.

    This clinical report describes the emotional and physical rehabilitation of a young man. The impact of the injuries sustained and repeated failure of traditional dental treatment methods had caused the patient to become quite withdrawn. A successful outcome followed surgical placement of multiple titanium plasma-sprayed cylindrical fixtures in severely damaged dental supporting tissues to serve as intermediary abutments for complex maxillary and mandibular fixed prostheses. The loss of crestal bone during the postprosthetic years is determined. The advantages only implant dentistry could bring are identified.
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6/31. Traumatic bone cyst: case report.

    The traumatic bone cyst is a lesion whose aetiology and pathogenesis have not been conclusively established. There are several theories and names for this lesion and various forms of management have been reported in the literature. This report outlines the clinical and radiographic findings associated with a case of a traumatic bone cyst. Laboratory investigations were also carried out and their findings are reported. This case was treated jointly by the endodontic and oral surgery departments of an institution and demonstrates the need for close follow-up from both departments. In particular, the endodontic aspects of monitoring the pulp status of teeth in the region of such a bone lesion are emphasised.
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7/31. Spontaneous bone regeneration of the mandible in an elderly patient: a case report and review of the literature.

    Spontaneous bone regeneration is an unexpected phenomenon that may take place in large mandibular defects secondary to trauma and tumor resection. One explanation for this unusual healing course is that it may be derived from the mechanism of fracture healing. A review of the literature presents several factors that may influence this process, such as the presence of periosteum and bony fragments, mandibular stabilization, soft tissue protection, the presence of infection, and a young age. Previous reports of spontaneous mandibular regeneration have all taken place in relatively young patients (5-35 years old). This paper reports a case of spontaneous bone regeneration in a 58-year-old woman who sustained an injury to her mandible from an explosive blast, and presents some explanations on how such an event could take place.
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8/31. Ewing's sarcoma of the mandible in a young patient: case report.

    Ewing's sarcoma, a malignant tumor, rarely occurs in children younger than 5 years of age. Although it may appear in any bone, it is more common in the axial skeleton, rarely involving the jaws (1 to 2% incidence, mostly in the mandible). The most common symptoms are pain and swelling in the affected area. history of trauma often is reported. The case of a 4-year, 10-month-old Caucasian male with a rapidly expanding mass on the right side of his face following an injury to his mandible is reported.
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9/31. recurrence of a solitary bone cyst of the mandibular condyle in a bone graft. A case report.

    The recurrence of a solitary bone cyst of the mandibular condyle in a costochondral bone graft is reported. A solitary bone cyst of the right condylar head and neck of a 10-year-old boy was treated by total resection and immediate reconstruction with a costochondral bone graft. Two years after the first operation, a recurrence of the solitary bone cyst within the bone graft was noted. An open treatment was performed. A review of the literature on solitary bone cysts and recurrences of solitary bone cysts shows that the case reported is unique. Possible reasons for the recurrence are discussed.
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10/31. Primary post-traumatic mandibular reconstruction in infancy: a 10-year follow-up.

    Ballistic trauma to the craniofacial skeleton combines the challenges of complex bone injury and loss with severe soft tissue injury and violation of the naso-orbital or oropharyngeal cavities. The authors report a patient who experienced a unique ballistic injury at 28 months of age that resulted in loss of the mandibular ramus and condyle. A segmental injury to the facial nerve was also identified. Primary costochondral grafting and delayed interpositional nerve grafting was undertaken. After 10 years, the patient has nearly 40 mm of opening, with only slight deviation to the injured side. Her facial nerve regeneration provides complete orbicularis oculi function, oral competence, and only slight facial asymmetry. This traumatic reconstruction differs from that of patients with hemifacial microsomia or post-traumatic/arthritic ankylosis in that the joint space itself was spared. Thus, the costochondral graft benefits from the remaining articular disk and upper disk space and is able to rotate and translate. Function and growth are adequately re-established, even in this young pediatric patient.
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