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1/8. Acrofacial dysostosis type Rodriguez.

    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a clinically and causally heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by mandibulofacial dysostosis and a variety of limb anomalies. Several abnormalities affecting different internal organs and the central nervous system (CNS) have been described. Depending on the type of limb defects, two major groups have been delineated: (1) with predominantly pre-axial anomalies, Nager type AFD, and (2) with predominantly post-axial involvement, Genee-Wiedemann form of AFD, also known as POADS, respectively. Other forms of "true AFD" have been described as Kelly, Reynolds, Arens (also Tel Aviv form), Rodriguez (or Madrid form), Richieri-Costa, and Patterson-Stevenson-Fontaine types. However, whether they are distinct entities or represent variants of the same condition remains unclear. Rodriguez AFD was described as a new lethal form of AFD in three affected sibs with severe mandibular hypoplasia, severe predominantly pre-axial limb deficiencies, absent fibulae and ribs, and internal organ anomalies, the most remarkable of which are arrhinencephaly and abnormal lung lobulation. We present a newborn girl with Rodriguez type of AFD, who died a few days after the birth due to respiratory failure. The phenotype and the cause of this condition are discussed.
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2/8. Microtia, severe micrognathia and absent ossicles: auriculo-condylar syndrome or new entity?

    The differential diagnosis of syndromes with anomalies of the first and second branchial arches includes the oculo-auriculo-vertebral syndrome, the Treacher-Collins syndrome, the acrofacial dysostoses (including Nager and Miller syndromes), the dysgnathia complex and the auriculo-condylar syndrome. Isolated microtia may also be present with involvement of other facial structures and distant organs. We report here a patient with first and second branchial arch anomalies, born to consanguineous parents. Pertinent physical findings include severe micrognathia, absence of the upper portion of the helices, atresia of the external meati and absence of the middle ear ossicles, mildly down-slanting palpebral fissures and a highly arched palate with a submucous cleft. Discussion of the differential diagnosis highlights the clinical overlap between these conditions. This constellation of findings may represent a more severe manifestation of the auriculo-condylar syndrome or a previously undescribed syndrome.
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3/8. Postaxial acrofacial dysostosis: report of a Brazilian patient.

    We report on a Brazilian child with postaxial acrofacial dysostosis (AFD)-type Genee-Wiedemann. Clinical and genetic aspects of the postaxial acrofacial dysostoses are discussed.
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4/8. Acrofacial dysostoses.

    A female baby was born with phocomelia, bilateral cleft lip and palate, marked micrognathia, malar hypoplasia, absence of lower eyelids, and absence of external ears. Radiological examination showed hypoplastic pectoral and pelvic girdles, short humeri and femora, with absence of forearms and legs, and oligodactyly of upper limbs. Her mother has triphalangism of the left thumb and a hypoplastic right thumb with stiff metacarpophalangeal joint. She also has downward-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, and deepset eyes. This observation offers an opportunity to revisit the acrofacial dysostoses syndromes, including Nager-Reynier syndrome, Genee-Wiedeman syndrome, and lethal forms.
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5/8. Acrofacial dysostosis of unknown type: nosology of the acrofacial dysostoses.

    We describe a stillborn girl with an unclassified form of mandibulofacial dysostosis, a postaxial defect of the right, and a preaxial defect of the left hand. The Nager syndrome is characterized by preaxial limb defects, whereas the Genee-Wiedemann syndrome (= Miller syndrome) by postaxial limb defects. We briefly review the established acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) and discuss the position of our case in the current classification.
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6/8. Acrofacial dysostoses: review and report of a previously undescribed condition: the autosomal or X-linked dominant Catania form of acrofacial dysostosis.

    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders combining defects of craniofacial and limb development. The predominantly preaxial form is called Nager AFD, the predominantly postaxial form of AFD (POADS) is also known as the Genee-Wiedemann or Miller syndrome. The former appears to be about twice as common as the latter with well-documented autosomal dominant and recessive occurrences in both conditions. Only 1 AD occurrence of POADS is known, but 5 sets of sibs are suggestive of AR inheritance. Heterogeneity of apparently nonsyndromal AFD of both types is powerful support for the hypothesis that the AFDs are polytopic field defects arising during blastogenesis. Six other previously described forms of AFD include the AFD syndrome of Kelly et al. (AR), the Rodriguez or Madrid form of AFD (AR or XLR), the Reynolds or idaho form of AFD (AD), the Arens or Tel Aviv type of AFD (AF?), the presumed AR AFD syndrome of Richieri-Costa et al., and the AD Patterson-Stevenson-Fontaine syndrome. Here we review the AFDs and report on a previously apparently undescribed autosomal or X-linked dominant form of AFD with mental retardation in a Sicilian mother and her 4 sons.
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7/8. Mild mandibulofacial dysostosis in a child with a deletion of 3p.

    We report on a patient with mild mandibulofacial dysostosis and a small interstitial deletion of 3p, 46,XY,del(3)(p23p24.12). Linkage of Treacher Collins syndrome, the most common of the mandibulofacial dysostoses, to the 5q31.3-->q33.3 region of chromosome 5 has been established. This is the fourth report of a patient with mandibulofacial dysostosis with a chromosome abnormality outside the 5q31.3 area. mandibulofacial dysostosis is a heterogeneous entity, and evaluation and counseling of affected individuals should be undertaken with caution.
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8/8. Confirmation of the Catania brachydactylous type of acrofacial dysostosis: report of a second family.

    The acrofacial dysostoses (AFD) are a heterogeneous group of disorders combining varying severities of mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD) with pre- and/or postaxial limb abnormalities. In 1993, Opitz et al. [Am J Med Genet 47:660-678] described a new AFD with mental retardation in a Sicilian mother and her four sons characterized by intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), postnatal short stature, microcephaly, widow's peak, MFD without cleft palate, mild pre- and postaxial limb hypoplasia with brachydactyly, mild interdigital webbing, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. We report a mother and daughter with this same phenotype, confirming this new type of AFD and expanding the clinical phenotype to include frequent dental caries. Analysis of cephalometric and metacarpophalangeal profiles in this family showed no distinctive diagnostic abnormalities. This family confirms the Catania brachydactylous type of AFD and supports an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, although male-to-male transmission has not been demonstrated.
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