Cases reported "Marburg Virus Disease"

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1/8. Short communication: a cluster of marburg virus disease involving an infant.

    A noteworthy cluster of six cases of Marburg haemorrhagic fever (MHF) was identified in the Democratic Republic of congo. One of the cases is the first infant Marburg fever patient ever documented. Three of six cases presented surprisingly mild symptoms. The results of epidemiological and virological investigations are compatible with person-to-person transmission through body fluids and with mother-to-child transmission while nurturing. The findings show that mild cases of MHF have to be expected during an outbreak and point out the difficulty to base patient management decisions on clinical case definitions alone. ( info)

2/8. Uveal involvement in marburg virus disease.

    The first reported case of uveal involvement in marburg virus disease is described. ( info)

3/8. The pathology of marburg virus disease.

    A description of the postmortem pathological findings in a case of Marburg virus disease emphasizes the findings of focal necrosis in the liver, spleen and lymphoid tissue, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute tubular necrosis. These features are compared and contrasted with those of other potentially fatal viral haemorrhagic fevers to help pathologists make an early diagnosis wherever possible. ( info)

4/8. The hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa with special reference to studies in the South African Institute for Medical research.

    In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, often fatal, was related to profound thrombocytopenia possibly following administration of toxic witch doctor medicine. Spirochetal diseases, and rickettsial diseases in their severe forms, are often manifested with hemorrhagic complications. Of enterovirus infections, Coxsackie B viruses occasionally caused severe hepatitis associated with bleeding, especially in newborn babies. Cases of hemorrhagic fever presenting in February-March, 1975 are described. The first outbreak was due to marburg virus disease and the second, which included seven fatal cases, was caused by rift valley fever virus. In recent cases of hemorrhagic fever a variety of infective organisms have been incriminated including bacterial infections, rickettsial diseases, and virus diseases, including Herpesvirus hominis; in one patient, the hemorrhagic state was related to rubella. A boy who died in a hemorrhagic state was found to have congo fever; another patient who died of severe bleeding from the lungs was infected with leptospira canicola, and two patients who developed a hemorrhagic state after a safari trip in Northern botswana were infected with trypanosoma rhodesiense. An illness manifested by high fever and melena developed in a young man after a visit to zimbabwe; the patient was found to have both malaria and marburg virus disease. ( info)

5/8. Virologic investigation of a case of suspected haemorrhagic fever.

    After travelling in subSaharan Africa, an area known for sporadic cases of Marburg virus infection, a young Swedish man presented with a classical picture of severe viral haemorrhagic fever complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation and septicaemia. serum samples examined by electron microscopy revealed particles of a size compatible with filovirions. Indirect fluorescent antibody tests indicated transient seroconversion to Marburg virus. In lymphocyte transformation assays of cells isolated from the patient 11 months after the onset of acute disease, Marburg viral antigen was able to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation 3.9-fold; however, exhaustive attempts to isolate virus from acute phase blood cultured in vitro or in vivo from guinea pigs and monkeys failed. Data suggest that this patient may have been infected with a filovirus. This case demonstrates the difficulties that may occur in laboratory diagnosis of viral haemorrhagic fevers. ( info)

6/8. Outbreake of marburg virus disease in Johannesburg.

    The first recognised outbreak of marburg virus disease in Africa, and the first since the original epidemic in West germany and yugoslavia in 1967, occurred in south africa in February 1975. The primary case was in a young Australian man , who was admitted to the Johannesburg Hospital after having toured Rhodesia. Two secondary cases occurred, one being in the first patient's travelling companion, and the other in a nurse. Features of the illness included high fever, myalgia, vomiting and diarrhoea, hepatitis, a characteristic maculopapular rash, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and a bleeding tendency. The first patient died on the seventh day from haemorrhage resulting from a combination of disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatic failure. The other two patients were given vigorous supportive treatment and prophylactic heparin and recovered after an acute phase lasting about seven days. During this period on developed pancreatitis, the serum amylase remaining raised until the 32nd day after the onset of the illness. The other developed unilateral uveitis after having been asymptomatic for two months. This persisted for several weeks and Marburg virus was cultured from the anterior chamber of the eye. ( info)

7/8. Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in kenya.

    In 1987, an isolated case of fatal Marburg disease was recognized during routine clinical haemorrhagic fever virus surveillance conducted in kenya. This report describes the isolation and partial characterization of the new Marburg virus (strain Ravn) isolated from this case. The Ravn isolate was indistinguishable from reference Marburg virus strains by cross-neutralization testing. Virus particles and aggregates of Marburg nucleocapsid matrix in Ravn-infected vero cells, were visualized by immunoelectron microscopic techniques, and also in tissues obtained from the patient and from inoculated monkeys. The cell culture isolate produced a haemorrhagic disease typical of Marburg virus infection when inoculated into rhesus monkeys. Disease was characterized by the sudden appearance of fever and anorexia within 4 to 7 days, and death by day 11. Comparison of nucleotide sequences for portions of the glycoprotein genes of Marburg-Ravn were compared with Marburg reference strains Musoki (MUS) and Popp (POP). Nucleotide identity in this alignment between RAV and MUS is 72.3%, RAV and POP is 71%, and MUS and POP is 91.7%. Amino acid identity between RAV and MUS is 72%, RAV and POP is 67%, and MUS and POP is 93%. These data suggest that Ravn is another subtype of Marburg virus, analogous to the emerging picture of a spectrum of Ebola geographic isolates and subtypes. ( info)

8/8. Marburg hemorrhagic fever: report of a case studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.

    The histologic and ultrastructural findings in a fatal human case of Marburg hemorrhagic fever are reported. Marburg virus was isolated from fluids and tissues and was identified in tissues by immunohistochemistry and electron and immunoelectron microscopy. The distribution of viral antigen by light level immunohistochemistry correlated with histologic lesions and also with the ultrastructural localization of virions. The tissue distribution and lesions of Marburg virus in this patient were consistent with the disease described in other human Marburg infections. Immunocytochemistry and ultrastructural examination revealed several previously unreported findings. A striking predilection for viral infection of the pancreatic islet cells was noted. In other tissues, macrophages were the primary cellular target for Marburg virus infection, with hepatocytes, adrenal cortical and medullary cells, and fibroblast-like cells also serving as important sites of viral replication. This case demonstrates the value of transmission electron microscopy as a tool for assisting in the definitive diagnosis of Marburg or Ebola hemorrhagic fever, as well as providing insight into the pathogenesis of these agents. ( info)

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