Cases reported "Marijuana Abuse"

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1/10. Traumatic brain injury, depression and cannabis use--assessing their effects on a cognitive performance.

    Patient RB is presented as a demonstration of the need for a more thorough understanding of the interactions of patient variables. RB had a history of traumatic brain injury along with current mood disorder and cannabis use. It was unclear initially whether or not his cognitive impairment was a permanent result of the brain injury, or a temporary effect of his mood and/or drug use. The literature offers few guidelines or precedents for understanding such complex cases or suggesting at which level it may be most appropriate to intervene. The impact of cannabis use in this individual appeared to have a detrimental effect on his mood. Treating RB's mood disorder resulted in larger cognitive gains than would have been anticipated in the literature. Specific neuropsychological tests are identified as being particularly sensitive to the cognitive changes in mood disorders.
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ranking = 1
keywords = depression
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2/10. Psychosis and pregnancy: five cases of severely ill women.

    An increasing number of patients with chronic mental disease are now integrated in society. As a consequence, women with severe psychiatric illness may become pregnant and wish to complete the pregnancy and to give birth to a child. The lack of sensation of reality in these patients and their social situation may result in particular problems in their treatment, and it may be necessary to admit them to a psychiatric ward before delivery. In this paper five cases of pregnant women with severe and chronic psychosis are described. These patients had many problems in common. Thus, they were all schizophrenics with very severe psychopathology, had poor understanding of their own situation, and lacked social networks. All the fathers were non-Danish. coercion was used in all cases. To help women with severe mental illness to go through pregnancy and childbirth requires close collaboration between psychiatric and obstetric staff and social workers, and this should be organized in an institution with experience in the treatment of this type of patient.
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ranking = 174.9664641035
keywords = psychosis
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3/10. cannabis and psychosis.

    BACKGROUND: cannabis use is commonly identified in people who present with psychosis. OBJECTIVE: This case study aims to provide a practical approach for general practitioners seeing patients with comorbid cannabis and mental health concerns. DISCUSSION: cannabis related comorbidity is commonly seen in general practice. general practitioners can manage most presentations and help to reduce the likely occurrence of cannabis induced psychosis through the use of psychosocial support, brief interventions and harm minimisation.
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ranking = 1049.798784621
keywords = psychosis
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4/10. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis.

    BACKGROUND: cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation) following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. CONCLUSION: While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.
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ranking = 699.86585641401
keywords = psychosis
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5/10. cannabis use and mood disorders: patterns of clinical presentations among adolescents in a developing country.

    Notwithstanding the increase use of cannabis among adolescents in both developing and developed countries, few studies have looked at cannabis use and mood disorders. In a series of case studies, this research project seeks to investigate patterns of clinical presentations seen among cannabis users in psychiatric outpatients in Trinidad. Five clinical patterns of presentations are identified among cannabis users and abusers based on variables of dosing, age of initial use, duration of use, tolerance and reverse tolerance and poly-drug abuse. All patients in these case studies were standardized for method of use and potency of cannabis used. Patients were screened by urine tests to determine co-morbid use of other substances. Other variables such as environmental factors and genetic vulnerability were reviewed as far as possible from historical accounts of family members. The five patterns described are low, controlled use with mild euphoria and heightened awareness, moderate use with mixed depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour, heavy, short term use with manic symptoms, long term incremental use with psychotic symptoms due to the trumping of depressive symptoms and cannabis mixed with other substances resulting in florid psychosis. mood disorders appear to be a common finding among adolescents using cannabis. Sensitization to symptomatic presentation and early detection of cannabis use in young adolescents are necessary. Further research is needed on the effect of cannabinoids on emotions, behaviour and thinking and its relationship to mental disorders. This study is useful as a guideline for the implementation of public health strategies and legislation concerning the use of cannabis in youths.
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ranking = 174.9664641035
keywords = psychosis
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6/10. Withdrawal sequelae to cannabis use.

    A specific withdrawal syndrome resulting from the prolonged use of cannabis is presented. It is believed to be an underreported set of symptoms that are now emerging in the united states as a result of the increasing potency of the drug and greater numbers of long-term users. Two case studies are presented which illustrate the cannabis withdrawal syndrome in an otherwise healthy 25-year-old male and an exacerbation of a preexisting affective disorder in a 38-year-old male who prior to his resumption of cannabis use was asymptomatic for 3 years with antidepressant medications. The cannabis withdrawal sequela is presented with a discussion of differential diagnosis and implications for treatment and future research.
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ranking = 1.0853349210951
keywords = affective
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7/10. alprazolam dependence in seven patients.

    The authors report on seven patients who met the DSM-III-R criteria for psychoactive substance (alprazolam) dependence. All had withdrawal symptoms, six demonstrated tolerance, and at least four had substantial social or occupational impairment secondary to drug use. All seven patients had begun taking alprazolam as treatment for anxiety or depression. Six patients abused other drugs or alcohol, either in the past or concurrently. Doses of alprazolam ranged from 2 to 12 mg/day, and duration of use was 6 months to 3 years. The potential for dependence should be considered when prescribing alprazolam.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = depression
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8/10. A therapeutic trial of caerulein to a long-term heavy marihuana user with amotivational syndrome.

    A male marihuana user with amotivational syndrome who responded poorly to neuroleptic therapy was treated four times with weekly intramuscular injection of caerulein in a dose of 0.6 micrograms/kg. He was maintained on his previous neuroleptic medication during the study period. The BPRS was used to rate the patient's symptoms. There were remarkable improvements in the total scores and the psychosis subscale score, which consists of the following symptoms that do not respond well to neuroleptic therapy in chronic schizophrenia: emotional withdrawal, mannerisms and posturing, uncooperativeness, and blunted affect. These improvements persisted for two weeks after cessation of caerulein administration, after which the patient's condition gradually worsened. Nevertheless, the improvement recurred upon reinjection of caerulein. These findings indicate that the improvement observed seems to be due to caerulein, and suggest that caerulein may be a useful and effective therapeutic drug for marihuana user with amotivational syndrome.
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ranking = 174.9664641035
keywords = psychosis
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9/10. Detection of marijuana use in psychiatric patients by determination of urinary delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid.

    Seventy-six male inpatients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, primary affective disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, other personality disorder, and primary substance abuse disorder were screened for the use of marijuana by determination of urinary delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid. Screening was performed to detect marijuana use in asymptomatic patients returning to the ward after passes, and also to elucidate changes in mental state in newly admitted patients and patients who had decompensated during hospitalization. Ward personnel found the screening procedure quite useful and incorporated it into psychotherapeutic and chemotherapeutic interventions. Although susceptible and resistant individuals were found in all diagnostic categories studied, no consistent features were found to distinguish those individuals who exhibited behavioral change in association with marijuana smoking, from those who did not.
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ranking = 1.0853349210951
keywords = affective
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10/10. cannabis psychoses in south sweden.

    Eleven patients with a psychosis in connection with cannabis abuse admitted to two mental hospitals during 1 year were examined. Patients with a pre-existent psychosis or a mixed abuse were excluded. The patients were divided into three groups: acute, subacute and chronic. The features of the disease were essentially similar in all patients, with a mixture of affective and schizophrenia-like symptoms, confusion and a pronounced aggressiveness. The course as a rule was self-limiting leaving no residual symptoms. There was almost no heredity of severe mental disease. The symptoms were very similar to those seen in cycloid psychosis, and a possible relationship between the two diseases is discussed. As regards the widespread abuse of cannabis we conclude that psychosis is a rare complication but that in unclear psychotic states it is recommended to actively search for a cannabis psychosis.
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ranking = 875.91765543861
keywords = psychosis, affective
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