Cases reported "Mastocytosis"

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1/72. Cutaneous and systemic manifestations of mastocytosis.

    mastocytosis is characterized by an excessive number of apparently normal mast cells in the skin and, occasionally, in other organs. Characteristic skin lesions, called urticaria pigmentosa, are present in most patients, but clinical presentation can vary from a pruritic rash to unexplained collapse and sudden death. These lesions are typically tan to red-brown macules that appear on the trunk and spread symmetrically. patients with mastocytosis often have a long history of chronic and acute symptoms that were unrecognized as mastocytosis. skin lesions may or may not accompany systemic mastocytosis. Systemic disease may involve the gastrointestinal tract, the bone marrow or other organs. Even when the disease is considered as a possibility by the physician, the diagnosis can be difficult because of special technical requirements necessary for biopsy and because of the problems with biochemical testing. drug therapy is initiated to stabilize mast cell membranes, to reduce the severity of the attacks and to block the action of inflammatory mediators. The mainstay of therapy is histamine H1 and H2 blockers and the avoidance of triggering factors.
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2/72. Pulmonary manifestation of systemic mast cell disease.

    Systemic mast cell disease is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. Systemic infiltration and proliferation of mast cells in skin, bone marrow, gastrointestinum and lymph nodes is the central pathological feature. This study reports a patient with mastocytosis of the skin (urticaria pigmentosa) for 10 yrs. The patient was referred to hospital for dyspnoea. Chest radiograph showed moderate reticular infiltration of both lungs, computerized tomography revealed multiple lymph nodes of the mediastinum and faint nodular lesions of middle and upper areas of lungs. Transbronchial biopsy demonstrated mast cell infiltration of the lung with formation of mast cell granuloma. According to the current literature, systemic mast cell disease with pulmonary involvement is a very rare entity. After a treatment with interferon alpha-2a over 6 months, the patient's condition and particularly dyspnoea showed improvement in parallel with an amelioration of the lesions as demonstrated by thorax computed tomography.
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3/72. mastocytosis cells bearing a c-kit activating point mutation are characterized by hypersensitivity to stem cell factor and increased apoptosis.

    mastocytosis is characterized by abnormal infiltration of mast cells into various organs. An activating mutation in c-kit, involving an A --> T substitution at nucleotide 2648 has recently been described in some patients with mastocytosis. We describe a 12-year-old girl with this mutation in her bone marrow cells at diagnosis with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) without evidence of mastocytosis, and then in peripheral blood mononuclear cells 1 year later after the emergence of mastocytosis. The role of the c-Kit receptor and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) in the pathogenesis of the disease was analysed in marrow cell clonogenic assays. We show that the genetic abnormalities in the patient resulted in factor-independent growth and hypersensitivity of primitive progenitors to SCF, with increased production of mast cells. Increased apoptosis and cluster formation, consistent with the myelodysplastic nature of the disorder, accompanied accumulation of abnormal cells with increasing concentrations of SCF.
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4/72. Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis with bone marrow infiltration in a child: a case report.

    mastocytosis encompasses a range of disorders characterized by overproliferation and accumulation of tissue mast cells. Mast cell disease is most commonly seen in the skin, but the skeleton, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and central nervous system may also be involved. We present a 10-year-old boy with diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis characterized by disseminated papular, nodular, and infiltrated leathery lesions. The patient presented with chronic diarrhea and malnutrition. Laboratory studies were normal except for an elevated urinary 1-methylhistamine level. The bone marrow aspirate showed a dense mast cell infiltrate confirming systemic involvement.
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5/72. Detection of c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val in microdissected bone marrow infiltrates in a case of systemic mastocytosis associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The occurrence of myeloid leukaemia in patients with systemic mastocytosis is a well recognised phenomenon. However, the pathophysiological basis of such a coevolution has not been clarified. Recent data have shown that the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val is detectable in neoplastic mast cells in most patients with systemic mastocytosis, including those who have associated haematological disorders. The aim of this study was to study clonal disease evolution by analysing bone marrow cells from a patient with systemic mastocytosis and associated chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) for the presence of this mutation. methods: The dna of microdissected bone marrow cells from a patient with systemic mastocytosis and associated CMML was analysed for the presence of the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val by means of HinfI digestion and direct sequencing of semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. RESULTS: The two neoplasms could easily be identified and discriminated in paraffin wax embedded bone marrow sections by tryptase and chloroacetate esterase staining. A total number of 10 tryptase positive systemic mastocytosis infiltrates and 10 tryptase negative CMML infiltrates were removed by microdissection. As assessed by HinfI digestion and direct sequencing of semi-nested PCR products, the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val was detected in five of seven systemic mastocytosis infiltrates and four of six CMML infiltrates. By contrast, no c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val was found in bone marrow infiltrates in patients with CMML without associated systemic mastocytosis (n = 20). CONCLUSION: These data support a monoclonal evolution of systemic mastocytosis and concurrent CMML in the patient studied.
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6/72. Effects of interferon-alpha2b treatment on ex vivo differentiation of mast cells from circulating progenitor cells in a patient with systemic mastocytosis.

    Interferon (IFN)-alpha, a known inhibitor of myelopoiesis, is increasingly used to treat patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM). However, the mechanisms of IFN-alpha effects on mast cell (MC) growth remain unknown, and the treatment responses may be variable. In the present study, factor-dependent ex-vivo differentiation of MCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) was analyzed in a patient with SM treated with IFN-alpha2b (3 million U/day). The patient exhibited an extensive MC infiltration in his bone marrow (BM) and increasing serum total tryptase levels (spiking to > 1,400 ng/ml). PBMNCs were collected before and during IFN-alpha2b treatment and cultured in the presence or absence of stem cell factor (SCF, 100 ng/ml) for 42 days. In the absence of SCF, no MC growth was detectable. However, in the presence of SCF, MC containing tryptase appeared in the cultures. Treatment with IFN-alpha2b resulted in a time-dependent decrease in SCF-inducible formation of MCs from PB progenitor cells in vitro. Also, during IFN-alpha2b treatment, blood histamine concentrations decreased. serum total tryptase levels initially increased despite IFN-alpha2b treatment. However, after a latency period of a few months, tryptase concentrations declined and then reached a plateau. In healthy individuals, the SCF-induced in vitro growth of MCs from their progenitor cells was also inhibitable by the addition of IFN-alpha2b. In summary, our data show that IFN-alpha2b can exhibit inhibitory effects on factor-dependent growth of MC progenitor cells. However, it still remains open which of the patients with mastocytosis can benefit from long-term IFN-alpha treatment.
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7/72. Nodular and bullous cutaneous mastocytosis of the xanthelasmoid type: case report.

    Severe generalized nodular and bullous mastocytosis of the xanthelasmoid type is described in a 7-month-old boy. Reddish to yellowish-brown xanthelasmoid papules and nodules first developed in the inguinal region a few weeks after birth and then progressively spread to cover nearly the entire body surface. There was severe pruritus and recurrent episodes of blistering. The diagnosis of cutaneous mastocytosis of the xanthelasmoid type with subepidermal bullae was confirmed by skin biopsies showing solid and deeply penetrating infiltrates of metachromatic mast cells under light and electron microscopy. Systemic involvement of other organs, however, was excluded by bone scintigraphy, abdominal ultrasound, bone marrow aspiration and echocardiography. The extensive skin involvement was reflected in highly elevated urinary levels of histamine (263.4 microg L(-1)) and its metabolite N-methylimidazole acetic acid (20.8 mg L(-1)). The patient was systematically well and received only symptomatic treatment. Over a period of 1 year, the condition gradually improved, and the skin lesions began to flatten and regress.
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8/72. A case of 'smouldering' mastocytosis with high mast cell burden, monoclonal myeloid cells, and C-KIT mutation Asp-816-Val.

    mastocytosis is a term used for a group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of tissue mast cells (MC) in one or more organ systems. In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) the clinical course may be indolent or aggressive or even complicated by leukemic progression or an associated clonal hematologic non mast cell lineage disease (AHNMD). However, at first presentation (diagnosis) it may be difficult to define the category of disease and the prognosis. We report on a 48-year-old female patient with SM with urticaria pigmentosa-like skin lesions and mediator-related symptoms. She was found to have splenomegaly, a high infiltration grade (MC) in bone marrow biopsies (>30%), mild anemia, and a high serum tryptase level (>500 ng/ml). In addition, she exhibited discrete histologic signs of myeloproliferation in the 'non-affected' marrow and monoclonal blood cells established by C-KIT 2468A-->T mutation (Asp-816-Val) -analysis and HUMARA assay. Despite these findings, however, the clinical course was stable over years and no AHNMD or organ impairment developed. Because of the 'intermediate' clinical signs and absence of progression to aggressive disease, we proposed the term 'smouldering mastocytosis'.
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9/72. Immunohistochemical properties of bone marrow mast cells in systemic mastocytosis: evidence for expression of CD2, CD117/Kit, and bcl-x(L).

    In an attempt to identify novel diagnostic markers for mast cell (MC)-proliferative disorders, serial bone marrow (bm) sections of 22 patients with mastocytosis (systemic indolent mastocytosis, n = 19; mast cell leukemia [MCL], n = 1; isolated bm mastocytosis, n = 2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD2, CD15, CD29, CD30, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD51, CD56, CD68R, CD117, HLA-DR, bcl-2, bcl-x(L), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tryptase. Staining results revealed expression of bcl-x(L), CD68R, and tryptase in neoplastic MCs (focal dense infiltrates) in all patients. mastocytosis infiltrates were also immunoreactive for CD45, CD117 (Kit), and HLA-DR. In most cases, the CD2 antibody produced reactivity with bm MCs in mastocytosis, whereas in control cases (reactive bm, immunocytoma, myelodysplastic syndrome), MCs were consistently CD2 negative. Expression of bcl-2 was detectable in a subset of MCs in the patient with MCL, whereas no reactivity was seen in patients with SIM or bm mastocytosis. mastocytosis infiltrates did not react with antibodies against CD15, CD30, CD31, CD34, or MPO. In summary, our data confirm the diagnostic value of staining for tryptase, Kit, and CD68R in mastocytosis. Apart from these, CD2 may be a novel useful marker because MCs in mastocytosis frequently express this antigen, whereas MCs in other pathologic conditions are CD2 negative.
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10/72. Complex karyotype and absence of mutation in the c-kit receptor in aggressive mastocytosis presenting with pelvic osteolysis, eosinophilia and brain damage.

    Aggressive mastocytosis is a form of systemic mast cell disease (SMCD) characterized by organ infiltration, bone lesions. eosinophilia and lymphadenopathies. Here we report a patient with unusual clinical features, namely osteolysis without other bone lesions commonly found in SMCD, major eosinophilia and cerebral infarction. The mast cells exhibited a classical immunophenotype (CD2 , CD9 , CD13 , CD25 , CD35 , CD45c and CD117 ). Cytogenetic investigation showed novel complex aberrations, and clonal evolution was correlated with clinical progression. The screening for recurrent point mutations affecting the c-kit gene was negative. Mainly, the ASP816VAL substitution was not detected in our patient. Treatment with steroids and interferon was only temporarily effective.
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