Cases reported "Maxillary Fractures"

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1/58. Unusual dental injuries following facial fractures: report of three cases.

    We report 3 cases of unusual dental injuries following facial fractures. The first patient sustained intrusion of a maxillary incisor into the nasal cavity following a mandibular fracture. The tooth dislocated into the pharynx and was found lodged in the piriform fossa during surgery. The second patient sustained intrusion of molars into the maxillary sinus following maxillary and mandibular fractures. His treatment was delayed due to life-threatening hemorrhage. The third case involved ingestion of multiple avulsed teeth into the alimentary tract following severe maxillofacial fractures. Although the diagnosis was made more than a week after the injury, the patient did not suffer any complications as a result of the dental avulsion. The aim of this report is to emphasize the possibility of associated dental injuries in patients with facial fractures. The trauma surgeon should be cognizant of the importance of carrying out a thorough intraoral examination during the initial evaluation. Any missing tooth should be considered as possibly displaced into other tissue compartments, and must be routinely searched for with x-rays of the skull, cervical spine, chest, and abdomen. If full intrusion injury is suspected, further diagnostic investigation with facial computed tomography scanning may be worth while.
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keywords = fracture, skull
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2/58. Reconstructive surgery for complex midface trauma using titanium miniplates: Le Fort I fracture of the maxilla, zygomatico-maxillary complex fracture and nasomaxillary complex fracture, resulting from a motor vehicle accident.

    maxillofacial injuries resulting from trauma can be a challenge to the Maxillo-Facial Surgeon. Frequent causes of these injuries are attributed to automobile accidents, physical altercations, gunshot wounds, home accidents, athletic injuries, work injuries and other injuries. Motor vehicle accidents tend to be the primary cause of most midface fractures and lacerations due to the face hitting the dashboard, windshield and steering wheel or the back of the front seat for passengers in the rear. Seatbelts have been shown to drastically reduce the incidence and severity of these injuries. In the united states seatbelt laws have been enacted in several states thus markedly impacting on the reduction of such trauma. In the philippines rare is the individual who wears seat belts. Metro city traffic, however, has played a major role in reducing daytime MVA related trauma, as usually there is insufficient speed in traffic areas to cause severe impact damage, the same however cannot be said for night driving, or for driving outside of the city proper where it is not uncommon for drivers to zip into the lane of on-coming traffic in order to overtake the car in front ... often at high speeds. Thus, the potential for severe maxillofacial injuries and other trauma related injuries increases in these circumstances. It is however unfortunate that outside of Metro Manila or other major cities there is no ready access to trauma or tertiary care centers, thus these injuries can be catastrophic if not addressed adequately. With the exception of Le Fort II and III craniofacial fractures, most maxillofacial injuries are not life threatening by themselves, and therefore treatment can be delayed until more serious cerebral or visceral, potentially life threatening injuries are addressed first. Our patient was involved in an MVA in Zambales, seen and stabilized in a provincial primary care center initially, then referred to a provincial secondary care center for further stabilization before his transfer to Manila and then ultimately to our Maxillo-Facial Unit. There was a two week-plus delay in the definitive management because of this. As a result of the delay, fibrous tissue and bone callus formation occurred between the various fracture lines, thus once definitive fracture management was attempted, it took on a more reconstructive nature. Hospital based Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgeons are uniquely trained to manage all aspects of the maxillo-facial trauma, and their dental background uniquely qualifies them in functional restoration of lower and midface fractures where occlusion plays a most important role. Likewise, their training in clinical medicine which is usually integrated into their residency education (12 months or more) puts them in a unique position to comfortably manage the basic medical needs of these patients. In instances where trauma may affect other regions of the body, an inter-multi-disciplinary approach may be taken or consults called for. In this instance, an opthalmology consult was important. In fresh trauma, often seen in major trauma centers (i.e. overseas), a "Trauma Team" is on standby 24 hours a day, and is prepared to assess and manage trauma patients almost immediately upon their arrival in the ER. The trauma team is usually composed of a Trauma Surgeon who is a general surgeon with subspecialty training in traumatology who assesses and manages the visceral injuries, an Orthopedic Surgeon who manages fractures of the extremities, a Neurosurgeon for cerebral injuries and an Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgeon for facial injuries. In some institutions, facial trauma call is alternated between the "three major head and neck specialty services", namely Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery, otolaryngology-head & neck Surgery and Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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ranking = 1.9999200599874
keywords = fracture
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3/58. Le Fort III osteotomy to correct dish-face deformity resulting from facial trauma.

    Untreated craniofacial fractures may result in a deformity similar to that which results from underdevelopment of the maxilla. Such a deformity can be corrected by osteotomy simulating Le Fort type III fracture lines. This operation necessitates careful pre-operative planning which incorporates a feasibility study with the combined use of dental study casts, cephalometric radiography and life-size photographic reproductions. A case history which describes the management of late complications of a malunited class III fracture is given.
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ranking = 0.3333200099979
keywords = fracture
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4/58. The use of the Naugle orbitometer in maxillofacial trauma.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Objective measuring of globe position is not a universal practice in the management of orbital trauma. Few studies in the literature advocate its routine use. methods AND MATERIALS: The Hertel exophthalmometer is the most widely used instrument; however, in trauma involving the lateral orbital rim (e.g., in zygoma fractures), the results are inaccurate because the displacement of the zygomatic bone interferes with its reference point on the lateral orbital rim. A more recent measuring device, the Naugle orbitometer, was introduced in 1992. It uses the superior orbital rim (frontal bar) and inferior orbital rim (malar eminence) as reference points. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: This article reports experience with this instrument in objective measuring the position of the globe in orbital trauma. These measurements are used 1) to monitor fractures that may not require repair but should be followed and observed for dystopia or enophthalmos, 2) to determine the adequacy of fracture repair, and 3) to determine the volume adjustment required for correcting enophthalmos. Future studies will be directed to compare the accuracy of Naugle and Hertel exophthalmometers.
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ranking = 0.3333200099979
keywords = fracture
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5/58. Hydroxyapatite cement in craniofacial trauma surgery: indications and early experience.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Reconstruction of the nonstress-bearing portions of the craniofacial skeleton has recently utilized several alloplastic compounds. One such recent compound is hydroxyapatite cement (HAC)--a calcium-phosphate-based product. Its chemical structure consists primarily of calcium phosphate, as does human bone, and this similarity in the mineral structure renders it biocompatible. methods AND MATERIALS: Based on clinical indications for HAC, the authors have classified acquired craniofacial defects into four types. This article presents 5 clinical cases with craniofacial fractures, sustained in various accidents, in which hydroxyapatite cement was used to prevent cranial deformities or to reinstate contour. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: Complications were encountered in some of these cases, but all patients healed without any secondary complications. While the short-term experience using hydroxyapatite cement in craniofacial trauma surgery has been favorable, long-term studies in humans are required to validate the safety and efficacy of this product.
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ranking = 0.1111066699993
keywords = fracture
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6/58. Facial fractures and related injuries: a ten-year retrospective analysis.

    A retrospective analysis of 828 patients with significant midface or mandibular fractures was undertaken to illustrate the multisystem nature of traumatic injuries associated with fracture of the facial skeleton, covering the period from 1985 to 1994. Special emphasis was placed on determining associated injuries sustained as well as epidemiological information. The experience presented differs from other large series in the literature in that the predominant mechanism of injury is motor vehicle accidents (67%) rather than assaults. Of the patients reviewed, 89% sustained significant associated injuries. Closed head trauma with documented loss of consciousness was noted most frequently (40%), followed by extremity fractures (33%), thoracic trauma (29%), and traumatic brain injuries (25%). Only 11% of patients sustained facial fractures without concomitant injury.
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ranking = 0.8888533599944
keywords = fracture
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7/58. Facial fractures from dog bite injuries.

    Dog bites are commonly associated with soft-tissue injury to the face but rarely result in facial fractures. This article reports six new cases of facial fractures associated with dog bites and reviews additional cases reported in the literature. The demographics of the patients attacked, the location of facial fractures, and the characteristics of associated soft-tissue injuries or complications developing from the dog bite are described. With six new cases and 10 from the literature, this article reviewed a total of 16 cases involving 27 facial fractures. Eighty-seven percent of the cases involved children less than 16 years of age. The periorbital or nasal bones were involved in 69 percent of the cases. lacerations were the most frequently associated soft-tissue injury. Additional injuries included facial nerve damage, lacrimal duct damage requiring stenting and reconstruction, ptosis from levator transection, and blood loss requiring transfusion. Although facial fractures are not commonly considered to be associated with dog bite injuries, the index of suspicion for a fracture should be raised when the injury occurs in a child, particularly when injury occurs near the orbit, nose, and cheek.
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ranking = 1.111066699993
keywords = fracture
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8/58. Reposition of intruded permanent incisor by a combination of surgical and orthodontic approach: a case report.

    This report presents a case of a completely intrusive luxation of an immature permanent central incisor in a 7 years 9 months-old girl. Because there are severe intrusive trauma and cortical alveolar bone fracture, it was impossible to reposition with orthodontic or surgical method alone. The intruded tooth was repositioned to healthy alveolar bone level by using surgical extrusion and stabilization with sutures and periodontal pack. After healing of adjacent bone, the intruded maxillary central incisor erupted orthodontically by removable orthodontic appliance. It was moved from a high position to level of adjacent tooth in about 7 months. A radiograph was taken 6 months after ceasing forced eruption, which demonstrated minor root resorption, but the alveolar bone height had increased.
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ranking = 0.1111066699993
keywords = fracture
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9/58. Gaze-evoked amaurosis: a report of five cases.

    OBJECTIVE: To highlight the various causes of gaze-evoked amaurosis. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS: Five patients treated at our facility over the past 6 years. methods: Clinical presentation, radiologic studies, surgical management, and postsurgical results are presented. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: visual acuity, clinical findings of gaze-evoked amaurosis. RESULTS: Only two patients had classic intraorbital etiologies, one with an intraconal cavernous hemangioma and one with an intraconal foreign body. Three patients had extraorbital processes, two with orbital fractures and one with a sinus tumor. Only two of our patients initially were aware of the gaze-evoked amaurosis at presentation. Appropriate surgery was curative in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Gaze-evoked amaurosis is a rare condition, classically implicating intraconal orbital pathology. In one of the largest case series published to date, we found extraorbital etiologies are also capable of producing gaze-evoked vision loss. Gaze-evoked amaurosis should be suspected and tested for in any orbital condition.
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ranking = 0.1111066699993
keywords = fracture
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10/58. Extrusion of a microplate: an unusual complication of osteosynthesis.

    A case is presented of an unusual complication of internal fixation of a midfacial fracture; the spontaneous extrusion of a microplate.
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keywords = fracture
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