Cases reported "Maxillary Sinusitis"

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1/3. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: pathways of spread.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is an invasive, opportunistic fungal infection usually seen in immunocompromised patients, and particularly in the setting of diabetes or immune deficiency. It is assumed that the port of entry is colonization of the nasal mucosa, allowing the fungus to spread via the paranasal sinuses into the orbit. Involvement of the brain and cavernous sinus occurs by way of the orbital apex; therefore, spheno-ethmoidectomy with or without maxillectomy seems to be the definitive method to eradicate this infection. We conducted a prospective study of ten patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis from February 2000 to April 2004. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis was clinically diagnosed in 11 patients, 10 of whom were included in our study upon histopathological confirmation. Diabetes was the most common underlying disorder seen in nine out of ten patients. In this study, the patients were assessed for predisposing factors, presenting signs and symptoms, sites of extension, the number and sites of surgical debridement, as well as the outcome. Ocular, sinonasal and facial soft tissue involvement was common. Involvement of the pterygopalatine fossa at the time of debridement was evident in all patients. No invasion through the lamina papiracea or the walls of the maxillary sinus was identified. At the time of this communication, six out of ten patients were alive. For the four who died, the causes were hypokalemia, cardiac arrythmia and refractory pneumonia. pterygopalatine fossa is considered to be the main reservoir for rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and extension into the orbit and facial soft tissues usually follows this route. After proliferation in the nasal cavity, the mucor reaches the pterygo-palatine fossa, inferior orbital fissure and finally the retroglobal space of the orbit, resulting in ocular signs. The facial soft tissues, palate and infratemporal fossa can be infected through connecting pathways from the pterygo-palatine fossa; therefore, debridement of the pterygopalatine fossa seems to be the definitive method of managing this infection.
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2/3. maxillary sinusitis and periapical abscess following periodontal therapy: a case report using three-dimensional evaluation.

    BACKGROUND: maxillary sinusitis may develop from the extension of periodontal disease. In this case, reconstructed three-dimensional images from multidetector spiral computed tomographs were helpful in evaluating periodontal bony defects and their relationship with the maxillary sinus. methods: A 42-year-old woman in good general health presented with a chronic deep periodontal pocket on the palatal and interproximal aspects of tooth #14. Probing depths of the tooth ranged from 2 to 9 mm, and it exhibited a Class 1 mobility. Radiographs revealed a close relationship between the root apex and the maxillary sinus. The patient's periodontal diagnosis was localized severe chronic periodontitis. Treatment of the tooth consisted of cause-related therapy, surgical exploration, and bone grafting. A very deep circumferential bony defect at the palatal root of tooth #14 was noted during surgery. After the operation, the wound healed without incidence, but 10 days later, a maxillary sinusitis and periapical abscess developed. To control the infection, an evaluation of sinus and alveolus using computed tomographs was performed, systemic antibiotics were prescribed, and endodontic treatment was initiated. RESULTS: Two weeks after surgical treatment, the infection was relieved with the help of antibiotics and endodontic treatment. Bilateral bony communications between the maxillary sinus and periodontal bony defect of maxillary first molars were shown on three-dimensional computed tomographs. The digitally reconstructed images added valuable information for evaluating the periodontal defects. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional images from spiral computed tomographs (CT) aided in evaluating and treating the close relationship between maxillary sinus disease and adjacent periodontal defects.
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3/3. Antral augmentation, osseointegration, and sinusitis: the otolaryngologist's perspective.

    Osseointegrated dental implants are a widely used method of replacing lost or missing teeth. Resorption of the alveolar ridge of the edentulous posterior maxilla may necessitate augmentation before osseointegration to provide adequate bone for implant fixation. This can be accomplished through an intraoral approach to the maxillary sinus, with elevation of the mucosa of the sinus floor creating a pocket for graft placement. Disruption of the intact sinus mucosa may result in sinusitis, graft infection, or extrusion with secondary formation of an oroantral communication. To treat these patients effectively, the otolaryngologist must be aware of the techniques of sinus augmentation and osseointegration as well as the etiology of associated complications. We will discuss the management of four patients with significant sinus complications, and evaluate the otolaryngologist's role in the preoperative and postoperative care of these patients.
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